One of the key differences between a managerial model of the public sector and the traditional model of administration has been the extra attention paid to matters affecting the organisation, but which are outside its immediate control. As discussed earlier, part of this renewed external focus has been to look at strategy, at the threats and opportunities in the environment in which the organisation finds itself. The other main part is the need to deal directly with outside individuals and institutions and how to manage these relationships. A key function of any manager is to attempt to control the organisation’s environment, or, at least, to influence as far as possible any factor at all that can impinge on its mission and objectives. External constituencies are important influences and any manager needs to take account of them in the management task.
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