James Baker, Secretary of State under President Bush, reflected accepted wisdom when he wrote that during his tenure in office (1989–92) “the very nature of the international system as we knew it was transformed” (Baker, 1995). Since 1989, it has been almost universally accepted that the ending of the Cold War shattered America’s foreign policy compass. Foreign policy elites have felt impelled to develop new doctrines to replace anti-communism, and to assemble new justifications for US global activism.
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