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When Will Independence End? Democratization and Civil Society in Rural Africa

  • Abdul Raufu Mustapha
Chapter
Part of the International Political Economy Series book series (IPES)

Abstract

Rural communities played a significant part in the decolonization process in Africa, be it in the cocoa hold-ups of Ghana and Nigeria, or in the armed struggle in Kenya and Zimbabwe. With the attainment of independence, however, most of the non-hegemonic social classes were demobilized from the political process, as the politics of authoritarianism and personal rule gained ground, often under the cover of promoting ‘national integration’ or ‘development’ (Mamdani, 1992; Shivji, 1991). In many instances, labour organizations, students’ movements and farmers’ councils were assimilated into the structures of the single or ruling party, and the social groups concerned were denied independent articulation of their interests (Beer, 1976). When similar policies were carried out against whole regions and ethnic groups, many countries descended into civil war.

Keywords

Civil Society Informal Sector African State Political Liberalization Associational Life 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1998
Selection and editorial matter © Lars Rudebeck, Olle Törnquist and Virgilio Rojas 1996, 1998 Text © Macmillan Press Ltd 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abdul Raufu Mustapha

There are no affiliations available

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