The Clink of the Hammer was Heard From Daybreak till Dawn: Gypsy Occupations in Western Europe (Nineteenth-Twentieth Centuries)

  • Leo Lucassen


Many children’s books in Western European countries portray people living in caravans and performing those trades associated with fairs and circuses, but services provided by knife-grinders and chairbottomers also appear regularly in literature written for children. People have been and still are confronted with all kinds of itinerant occupations in their daily life: showpeople who go from fair to fair, musicians, conjurers, jugglers, acrobats and others who perform their activities in the streets of big cities, collectors of scrap metal, and so on.


Nineteenth Century Western European Country Scrap Metal Unfair Competition Combine Stigmatization 
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Copyright information

© Leo Lucassen, Wim Willems and Annemarie Cottaar 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leo Lucassen

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