The Main Protagonist: Saddam Hussein’s Iraq Facing Khomeini’s Iran

  • Nadia El-Sayed El-Shazly


From the sixteenth century onwards, Mesopotamia was part of the Ottoman Empire, until Britain inherited its Middle Eastern dependencies. At the death of the ‘Sick Man of Europe’ — a term invented by Russia’s Nicholas I in alluding to the Ottoman Empire — the British troops expelled the Turks and captured the territories. Despite occupation in 1916, present-day Iraq was not colonized in the legal sense of the word. Created in 1921, the same year Reza Shah took part in a rebellion in Persia, Iraq was administered by Great Britain, under a League of Nations mandate, then granted independence on 3 October 1932.


Spare Part Democratic Party Muslim Brotherhood Islamic Movement Opposition Movement 
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© Nadia El-Sayed El-Shazly 1998

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  • Nadia El-Sayed El-Shazly

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