Agriculture in Transition: Land Reform in Former Socialist Countries

  • Zvi Lerman
Part of the International Economic Association Series book series (IEA)

Abstract

Traditional socialist agriculture was characterized by dual structure: commercial production concentrated in large-scale collective and state farms cultivating thousands of hectares with hundreds of employees (Medvedev, 1987; Cochrane, 1989), and subsistence-oriented individual farming in small household plots of less than half a hectare based on part-time family labour (Waedekin, 1973, 1990). In most of the region, including the republics of the former Soviet Union and Albania, all agricultural land was owned by the state. In the rest of East-Central Europe (ECE) however, cooperative or collective land ownership emerged in addition to state property as individual land-owners began joining cooperative farms, and private land continued to exist in various forms. Yet even land that was formally registered as individually owned was managed and cultivated by large-scale collectives and cooperatives. Transition to individual land ownership and restructuring of the large-scale ‘socialized’ farm enterprises is therefore one of the main characteristics of agricultural transformation in the ECE countries and the former Soviet Union (FSU). The present chapter describes the ongoing changes in land tenure relations and farm organization in the former socialist countries as of early 1996.

Keywords

Europe Transportation Income Marketing Romania 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Brooks, K. and Z. Lerman (1994) ‘Land Reform and Farm Restructuring in Russia’, World Bank Discussion Paper, vol. 233 (Washington, DC: World Bank).Google Scholar
  2. Brooks, K. and Z. Lerman (1995) ‘Restructuring of Traditional Farms and New Land Relations in Russia’, Agricultural Economics, vol. 13, pp. 11–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brooks, K., E. Krylatykh, Z. Lerman, A. Petrikov and V. Uzun (1996), ‘Agricultural Reform in Russia: A View from the Farm Level’, World Bank Discussion Paper, 327 (Washington, DC: World Bank).Google Scholar
  4. CIS (1994) Strany-Chleny SNG v 1993 g. Statisticheskii Yezhegodnik (Member-Countries of the CIS in 1993. Statistical Yearbook), Statistical Committee of the CIS, Moscow.Google Scholar
  5. Cochrane, N. J. (1989) ‘Agricultural Statistics of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, 1965–85’, Statistical Bulletin, 778, USDA Economic Research Service, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  6. Euroconsult (1994) ‘Farm Restructuring and Land Tenure in Reforming Socialist Economies: A Comparative Analysis of Eastern and Central Europe’, World Bank Discussion Paper, vol. 268 (Washington, DC: World Bank).Google Scholar
  7. European Commission (1995) Agricultural Situation and Prospects in the Central and Eastern European Countries, Summary Report and Country Reports, Directorate-General for Agriculture (July).Google Scholar
  8. Gavrilescu, D. (1993) ‘Romania Facing the European Agrifood Integration: The Shock of Transition’, VII EAAE Congress, Stresa, Italy, Contributed Papers, vol. F, Agricultural Development and Transition, pp. 15–28.Google Scholar
  9. Lerman, Z., K. Brooks and C. Csaki (1994) ‘Land Reform and Farm Restructuring in Ukraine’, World Bank Discussion Paper, vol. 270 (Washington, DC: World Bank).Google Scholar
  10. Lerman, Z., K. Brooks and C. Csaki (1995) ‘Restructuring of Traditional Farms and New Land Relations in Ukraine’, Agricultural Economics, vol. 13, pp. 27–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Medvedev, Zh. A. (1987) Soviet Agriculture (New York: Norton).Google Scholar
  12. Trendafilov, R. and V. Ivanova-Gidikova (1993). ‘Reform and Market Adjustment of the Bulgarian Agricultural Sector’, VII EAAE Congress, Stresa, Italy, Contributed Papers, vol. F, Agricultural Development and Transition, pp. 1–14.Google Scholar
  13. Waedekin, K.-E. (1973) The Private Sector in Soviet Agriculture (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press).Google Scholar
  14. Waedekin, K.-E. (1990) ‘Private Agriculture in Socialist Countries: Implications for the USSR’, in K. R. Gray (ed.), Soviet Agriculture: Comparative Perspectives (Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© International Economic Association 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zvi Lerman
    • 1
  1. 1.The Hebrew University of JerusalemIsrael

Personalised recommendations