Human activities such as the release of noxious gases into the atmosphere, the destruction of forests and the over exploitation of natural resources have caused irreversible environmental damage throughout the world. In some cases the damage is so severe that life-support systems, both locally and globally, are being threatened. Unless we curb our desire for more and more material possessions and unceasing economic growth, continued ecological damage will be unavoidable.


Civil Disobedience Environmental Stewardship World Religion Ecological Crisis Spiritual Tradition 
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Notes and References

  1. 1.
    Ravi Ravindra, Science and Spirit (New York: Paragon House, 1991), p. 36.Google Scholar
  2. 4.
    See Mary Ann Beavis (ed.), Environmental Stewardship: History Theory and Practice Workshop Proceedings (Winnipeg: Institute of Urban Studies, University of Winnipeg), 1994, p. 6.Google Scholar
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    See J. Macquarrie, ‘Creation and the Environment’, in D. and E. Spring (eds), Ecology and Religion and History (New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1974).Google Scholar
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    For further details see O. P. Dwivedi, Environmental Ethics: Our Dharma to the Environment (New Delhi: Sanchar Publishing, 1994), pp. 31–78.Google Scholar
  5. 10.
    Miriam Wyman, ‘Derekh Eretz: A Personal Exploration’, Conservative Judaism, vol. XLIV, no. 1 (Fall 1991), p. 11.Google Scholar
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    Rabbi Lawrence Troster, ‘Created in the Image of God: Humanity and Divinity in an Age of Environmentalism’, Conservative Judaism, vol. XLIV, no. 1 (Fall 1991), p. 17.Google Scholar
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    Discussion about ‘Christianity and the Environment’ by Rev. Anand Veeraraj in O. P. Dwivedi (ed.), World Religions and the Environment (New Delhi: Gitanjali Publishing, 1989), pp. 36–118.Google Scholar
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    The Discussion in this section is based on two essays: Mohamed Ali Mekouar, ‘The Islamic Ethic’, IUCN Bulletin 15, no. 7 (July–September 1984), pp. 75–6; M. Rafiq and Muhammad Ajmal, ‘Islam and the Present Ecological Crisis’ in O. P. Dwivedi (ed.), World Religions and the Environment (New Delhi: Gitanjali Publishing, 1989), pp. 119–37.Google Scholar
  9. 18.
    Quoted in Iqtidar Zaidi, ‘On the Ethics of Man’s Interaction with the Environment: An Islamic Approach’, Environmental Ethics, vol. 3, no. 1 (Spring 1981), p. 41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 22.
    Bhikkhu Jagdis Kassap, Metta-sutta (Patna: Bihar State Pali Publications Board, 1959), pp. 8, 149–50.Google Scholar
  11. 23.
    Quoted by Chatsumarn Kabilsingh in ‘How Buddhism Can Help Protect Nature’, in Shann Davies (ed.), Tree of Life (Geneva: WWF, 1987), p. 14.Google Scholar
  12. 24.
    Quoted in ‘Foreword’ in Martin Palmer and Esther Bisset, Worlds of Difference (Glasgow: Blackie, 1985).Google Scholar
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    Abdu’l-Baha, Tablet to Dr Forel, in The Baha’i Revelation (London: Baha’i Publishing Trust, 1955), p. 223.Google Scholar
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    Chandi Prasad Bhatt, ‘The Chipko Andolan: Forest Conservation Based on People’s power’, in Anil Agarwal, Darryl D’Monte, and Ujwala Samarth (eds), The Fight for Survival (New Delhi: Centre for Science and Environment, 1987), p. 51.Google Scholar
  17. 38.
    M. K. Gandhi, Non-Violent Resistance (New York: Schocken Books, 1961), p. 325.Google Scholar
  18. 43.
    Quoted in Judith M. Brown, Gandhi and Civil Disobedience (London: Cambridge University Press, 1977), p. 342.Google Scholar
  19. 45.
    Karan Singh, Brief Sojourn (Delhi: B. R. Publishing, 1991), p. 123.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© O. P. Dwivedi 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. P. Dwivedi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Political StudiesUniversity of GuelphCanada

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