Environmentally Orientated Product Policies, Competitiveness and Market Access

  • Veena Jha
  • René Vossenaar


Environmentally orientated product policies establish certain criteria for the design, content and/or disposal of products in order to minimise their environmental impact. They often take the form of standards and regulations, market-based instruments, product liability requirements or labelling and information conditions. These policies may be voluntary in nature or mandated by governments.


Product Category Market Access Product Policy Trade Effect Economic Instrument 
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Notes and references

  1. 1.
    See G. Bennet and B. Verhoeve, ‘Environmental Product Standards in Western Europe, the U.S. and Japan: A Guidebook’, final report prepared under contract to the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development in cooperation with the Commission of the European Communities and USAID, December 1993.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    See J. Grimmett, ‘The Case of Recycled Paper in Newsprint’, paper presented at an informal OECD expert workshop on Trade and Environment: Issues Pertaining to Processes and Production Methods (PPMs), Helsinki, 6–7 April 1994.Google Scholar
  3. 4.
    See UNCTAD, UNCTAD’s Contribution, within its Mandate, to Sustainable Development: Trade and Environment — Trends in the Field of Trade and Environment in the Framework of International Cooperation (Geneva: UNCTAD (TD/B/40(1)/6), August 1993).Google Scholar
  4. 5.
    S. Zarrilli, ‘Ecopackaging Initiatives: Impact on International Trade and the Special Status of the Developing Countries’, paper presented at the UNCTAD/SELA/ECLAC Regional Seminar on Environmental Policies and Market Access, Bogota, Colombia, 19–20 October 1993.Google Scholar
  5. 7.
    See D. Gaviria, R. Gorney, L. Ho and A. Soto, ‘Reconciliation of Trade and Environment Policies: The Case Study of Colombia’, report prepared for the UNCTAD/UNDP project INT/92/207 (1994).Google Scholar
  6. 9.
    See N. Robson, ‘Jute Packaging and the Environment: The Problems and the Opportunities’, paper prepared for the International Consultation on Jute and the Environment, The Hague, Netherlands, 26–29 October 1993.Google Scholar
  7. 10.
    V. Jha, R. Vossenaar and S. Zarrilli ‘Eco-labelling and International Trade’, UNCTAD Discussion Paper no. 70 (Geneva: UNCTAD, October 1993).Google Scholar
  8. 14.
    Celik Arouba, ‘Analysis of Probable Impact of EU Eco-labelling Program and Related Criteria on Turkish Textiles and Garments Exports to European Markets’, paper presented for the UNCTAD workshop on Eco-labelling and International Trade, Geneva, 28–29 June 1994.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© UNCTAD 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Veena Jha
  • René Vossenaar

There are no affiliations available

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