Ageing Populations in Europe: Demographic Trends and Policy Issues

  • Jane Littlewood

Abstract

This chapter is primarily concerned with the social policy implications of the ‘greying’ of the population of the European Union (EU). Consequently, the major demographic changes which have taken place in the EU will be considered in the first part of the chapter. However, it must be said at the outset that the ‘science’ of demography is somewhat imprecise. Specifically, although it is possible to detect general trends over long periods of time, there may be some short-term fluctuations which go against these general trends. Furthermore, casting forward population projections is almost always fraught with difficulty.

Keywords

Migration Europe Income Tral OECD 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Baker, J. (1986), ‘Comparing National Priorities: Family and Population Policy in Britain and France’, Journal of Social Policy, Vol. 15, No. 5, pp. 421–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barr, N. (1991), ‘The Objectives and Attainments of Pension Schemes’, in Thomas and Dorothy Wilson (eds.), In the Stale and Social Welfare, Longman, London.Google Scholar
  3. Brauns, H-J. and Kramer, D. (1989), ‘West Germany: The Break-up of Consensus and the Demographic Threat’, in B. Munday (ed.), The Crisis in Welfare, Harvester-Wheatsheaf, Hemel Hempstead.Google Scholar
  4. Brooke-Ross, R. (1987), ‘Elderly People’s Care in Germany’, Social Policy and Administration, Vol. 21, No. 3 (Autumn), pp. 244–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Butler, A. (1986), ‘Housing and the Elderly in Europe’, Social Policy and Administration, Vol. 20, No. 2 (Summer), pp. 136–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chassard, Y. and Quintin, O. (1992), ‘Social Protection in the European Community: Towards a Convergence of Policies’, in International Social Security Review, Vol. 45, pp. 91–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ginn, J. (1993), ‘Grev Power: Age-based Organisations’ Response to Structure Inequalities’, Critical Social Policy, Issue 38 (Autumn), pp. 23–47.Google Scholar
  8. Gray, B. (1986), ‘Status and Stereotypes — Past and Present Attitudes to Old People in Western Society’, Social Policy and Administration, Vol. 20, No. 2 (Summer), pp. 153–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Guillemard, A-M. (1986), ‘Social Policy and Ageing in France’ in C. Phillipson and W. Walker (eds.), Ageing and Social Policy: A Critical Assessment, Gower, Aldershot.Google Scholar
  10. van Gunsteren, Herman and Rein, Martin (1985), ‘The Dialectic of Public and Private Pensions’, Journal of Social Policy, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 129–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Doring, D., Hauser, R., Rolf, G. and Tibitanzl, F. (1994), ‘Old-age Security for Women in the 12 EC Countries’, Journal of European Social Policy, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 1–18.Google Scholar
  12. Flanders, S. (1995), ‘Why States Must Grow: Growing Older and Growing Slower’, Financial Times, 6 November, p. 25.Google Scholar
  13. Henrad, J. C. (1991), ‘Care for Elderly People in the European Community’, Social Policy and Administration, Vol. 25, No. 3, September, pp. 184–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Parry, R. (1995), Redefining the Welfare State’, in J. Haywood and E.C. Page, Governing the New Europe, Polity Press, Cambridge, pp. 374–400.Google Scholar
  15. Petersen, J. H. (1991), ‘Problems of Pension Policy: American, British, Danish and German Ideas’, Social Policy and Administration, Vol. 25, No. 3, September, pp. 249–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Phillipson, C. and A. Walker (1986), Agency and Social Policy, Gower, Aldershot.Google Scholar
  17. Simons, J. (1992), ‘Europe’s Ageing Population — Demographic Trends’, in J. Bailley (ed.), Social Europe, Longman, London, pp. 50–69.Google Scholar
  18. Stahlberg, A-C. (1991), ‘Lessons from the Swedish Pension System’, in Thomas and Dorothy Wilson (eds.), The State and Social Welfare, Longman, London.Google Scholar
  19. Stahlberg, A-C. (1993), ‘Pension Reforms in Sweden’, Benefits, Issue 6, Jan/Feb, pp. 11–15.Google Scholar
  20. Taylor-Gooby, P. (1992), Social Change and Social Welfare, Harvester-Wheatsheaf, Hemel Hempstead.Google Scholar
  21. Tester, S. (1994), ‘Implications of Subsidiary for the Care of Older People in Germany’, Social Policy and Administration, Vol. 28, No. 3, September, pp. 251–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Townsend, P. (1986), ‘Ageism and Social Policy’, C. Philipson and A. Walker (eds.) Ageing and Social Policy: A Critical Assessment, Gower, Aldershot.Google Scholar
  23. Walker, A. (1993), ‘Achieving (or not Achieving) Economic Security in Old Age: the EC’s Pension Systems Compared’, Benefits, Issue 8, Sept./Oct., pp. 4–8.Google Scholar

Other Reports and Statistical Sources OECD Reports

  1. ‘Effects of Ageing Populations on Government Budgets’ (1995), in Economic Outlook, 57, June (OECD, Paris).Google Scholar
  2. OECD (1988), Ageing Populations, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and development (Paris).Google Scholar

EU Publications

  1. Social Protection in the Member States of the European Union. Situation in July 1994 and evolution. From MISSOC, the Directorate General of Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs, published by the Office for Official Publications of the European Communities (Luxembourg, 1995).Google Scholar
  2. Eurostat Demographic Statistics, Eurostats 1960–76, published for the Office for Official Publications of the European Communities (Luxembourg, 1977).Google Scholar
  3. Eurostat Demographic Statistics, Eurostats, 1984, 1989, 1990 all published by the Office for Official Publications of the European Communities (Luxembourg).Google Scholar
  4. Eurostat Census of Populations 1968–77, published by the Office for Official Publications of the European Communities (Luxembourg, 1977).Google Scholar
  5. Eurostat Year Book 1995, published by the Office for Official Publications of the European Communities (Luxembourg, 1995).Google Scholar
  6. Eurostat Social Protection Statistical Bulletin, European System on Integrated Social Protection Statistics (ESSPROS), Eurostat 1 (Luxembourg, 1985).Google Scholar
  7. Eurostat Social Protection Statistical Bulletin 1, (Luxembourg, 1984).Google Scholar
  8. Eurostat Key Figures 06/95, published by the Office for Official Publications of the European Communities (Luxembourg, 1995).Google Scholar
  9. Eurostat Statistics in Focus, Population and Social Conditions, Eurostat No. 8, published by the Office for Official Publication of the European Communities (Luxembourg, 1995).Google Scholar
  10. MISSOC (1994), Social Protection in the Member States of the European Union, Situation at 1st July, the Directorate General in Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs, Office of Official Publications for the European Communities, Luxembourg..Google Scholar

Council of Europe Publications

  1. Recent Demographic Developments in Europe, published by the Council of Europe Publishing and Documentation Service (Strasbourg, 1993).Google Scholar

United Nations Publications

  1. ‘Age-Structure Changes in 1950–1990’, In the United Nations Demographic Year Book 1991, Special Issue on Age and Ageing, published by the Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis of the United Nations (New York, 1993).Google Scholar
  2. United Nations Demographic Yearbook, published by the Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis of the United Nations (New York, 1971).Google Scholar
  3. UNESCO Statistical Year Book, published in 1994 by the United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (Paris, 1994).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jane Littlewood

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations