Global Apartheid and the Challenge to Civil Society: Africa in the transformation of world order
If the 1970s were characterised by the widespread success of the armed liberation struggle in Africa, the 1980s might have been billed as the lost development decade for the continent. Many sub-Saharan African countries witnessed either stagnation or a reversal of the gains of the 1960s and 1970s. The 1990s, which ushered dramatic changes in the world, starting first with the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, are unlikely to bring better economic and political prospects for most countries in the continent.1 Grinding poverty is so extensive that the major international organisations are predicting more hard times for Africa. Many countries may descend into a desperate spiral of anarchy, looting, famine and self-destruction. The scourge of the AIDs epidemic, ethnic conflicts, ecological degradation and economic mismanagement will continue to have a profound impact on the future directions of Africa’s democratisation. These developments are taking place against the background of unprecedented changes in global economic and political relationships in which Africa will have only a marginal role to play.
KeywordsSugar Dioxide Economic Crisis Europe Ozone
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