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Church and State: Eça de Queirós, Alas, Galdós

  • Bill Overton

Abstract

In most accounts of nineteenth-century fiction, the novel of adultery is seen as a standard narrative form showing little essential deviation from one example, one national setting, to another. The cases of Jacobsen and Fontane demonstrate that individual novelists, working in different cultures and out of different traditions, varied the theme considerably. Although both followed precedent as male writers who produced impersonal narratives centred on female adultery, both also challenged it. As the previous chapter has shown, both Marie Grubbe and L’Adultera vindicate the heroine; while Fontane went further still by basing Beyond Recall on male adultery, and by foregrounding, in Effi Briest, a culture of rigid conformism and emotional repression.

Keywords

Sexual Infidelity Portuguese Society Sexual Disgust Sexual Frustration Male Writer 
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Notes

  1. 2.
    ‘Realism in Spain and Portugal’, in The Age of Realism, ed. by F. W. J. Hemmings (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1974), p. 317.Google Scholar
  2. 6.
    Obra Completa, 2 vols, ed. by João Gaspar Simões and others (Rio de Janeiro: Companhia José Aguilar Editõra, 1970), I, 551–840. The Campbell translation, the only one available in English, is both incomplete, cutting many short passages and some of considerable length, and extremely unreliable. Chapter numbers are indicated for both texts because Campbell’s numbering is incorrect from Chapter VII onwards; where I have modified the translation, this is indicated by the abbreviation ‘TM’. There is a nineteenth-century American translation by Mary J. Serrano inappropriately entitled Dragon’s Teeth (Boston: Ticknor, 1889). Although this is more complete than Campbell’s, and generally more accurate, it is explicitly a bowdlerized version of Eça’s text and it introduces further chapter divisions.Google Scholar
  3. 13.
    See, for example, The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays by M. M. Bakhtin, trans. and ed. by Michael Holquist, University of Texas Press Slavic Series, 1 (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1981)Google Scholar
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  6. 27.
    ‘Mysticism and Hysteria in La Regenta: The Problem of Female Identity’, in Feminist Readings on Spanish and Latin-American Literature, ed. by L. P. Condé and S. M. Hart (Lewiston, NY, Queenston, Ont., and Lampeter, Wales: Edwin Mellen Press, 1991), pp. 37–46 (p. 41).Google Scholar
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    See Maryellen Bieder, ‘Between Genre and Gender: Emilia Pardo Bazán and Los Pazos de Ulloa’, in In the Feminine Mode: Essays on Hispanic Women Writers, ed. by Noël Valis and Carol Maier (London and Toronto: Associated University Presses, 1990), pp. 131–45.Google Scholar
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    For a discussion of organicism in nineteenth-century thought, see Sally Shuttleworth, George Eliot and Nineteenth-Century Science: The Make-Believe of a Beginning (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1984), especially Chapter 1, ‘Science and social thought: The rise of organic theory’.Google Scholar
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    For discussion of the historical parallels, see Geoffrey Ribbans, ‘Contemporary History in the Structure and Characterization of “Fortunata y Jacinta”’, in Galdós Studies, ed. by J. E. Varey (London: Támesis Books, 1970), pp. 90–113; and Peter A. Bly, Galdós’s Novel of the Historical Imagination, pp. 85–115.Google Scholar
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    Quoted by Peter B. Goldman in ‘Galdós and the Nineteenth-Century Novel: The Need for an Interdisciplinary Approach’, Anales Galdosianas, 10 (1975), 5–18; repr. in Galdós, ed. by Jo Labanyi, pp. 140–56 (p. 144). The ellipsis marks in the quotation are Goldman’s.Google Scholar
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    See also Lisa P. Condé, Women in the Theatre of Galdós: From Realidad (1892) to Voluntad (1895), Hispanic Literature, 6 (Lewiston, NY, Queenston, Ont., and Lampeter, Wales: Edwin Mellen Press, 1990).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Bill Overton 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bill Overton
    • 1
  1. 1.Loughborough UniversityUK

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