The Lines of Communication: The Civil War Defences of London
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During 1642–3 London, Westminster and Southwark were given the protection of the most extensive defensive circuit built by either side during the English Civil War. This was the eleven-mileslong ‘Lines of Communication’, as the defences were called, which consisted of a ring of forts or sconces joined by a rampart and ditch.1 Although not amounting to a city fortress in a continental sense, the lines were among the larger urban defensive enclosures in early modern Europe.
KeywordsEighteenth Century Teenth Century Main Defence Ground Disturbance Security Circuit
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