The Lines of Communication: The Civil War Defences of London
During 1642–3 London, Westminster and Southwark were given the protection of the most extensive defensive circuit built by either side during the English Civil War. This was the eleven-mileslong ‘Lines of Communication’, as the defences were called, which consisted of a ring of forts or sconces joined by a rampart and ditch.1 Although not amounting to a city fortress in a continental sense, the lines were among the larger urban defensive enclosures in early modern Europe.
KeywordsBurning Europe Shipping Gravel Excavation
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