Regional Organisation Outside Europe

  • David Armstrong
  • Lorna Lloyd
  • John Redmond
Part of the The Making of the 20th Century book series


There is now a vast number of regional and subregional organisations with a range of functions embracing military, economic, political and cultural cooperation. Rather than attempting to discuss all or even many of these — a task which in one chapter would produce little more than a list of names — I will confine myself here to considering briefly the history and functions of three of the more important regional organisations together with some of their offshoots.


Regional Organisation Economic Integration Uruguay Round Free Trade Area ASEAN Member 
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Notes and References

  1. 1.
    Membership currently comprises 35 member states from Northern, Central and Southern America. Cuba was suspended in 1962 but at the OAS Assembly in Brazil in June 1994, Costa Rica urged the opening of discussions on Cuba’s readmittance, warning that the Organisation ‘can no longer ignore the Cuban case’. Canada joined in January 1990 and Belize and Guyana in January 1991.Google Scholar
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    Catalogues of the reasons why non-European regional groupings have, in general, failed are provided by R. J. Langhammer, ‘The Developing Countries and Regionalism’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 30, no. 2 (June 1992) 214 and, particularly comprehensively, by A. Hazelwood, ‘The East African Community’ in A. M. El-Agraa (ed.), International Economic Integration (London, 1988) pp. 187–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    These include, for example, the questions of the feasibility of integration of countries of different sizes and at different levels of development, the complementarity of ASEAN trade, the equitable distribution of benefits and investment and the potential clashes of political ideology.Google Scholar
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    ‘Blood and Money’, Far Eastern Economic Review, 147, no. 9 (1 March 1990) 8–9. The Malaysians also managed to upset the Thais by warning Malaysian nationals not to visit the southern Thai ‘red light’ border areas because of the risk of AIDS.Google Scholar
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    Indonesian economist, Mohammad Sadli, quoted in ibid. For a security-focused discussion of intra-ASEAN tensions see T. Huxley, Insecurity in the ASEAN Region (London: RUSI, 1993) Whitehall Paper 23, pp. 11–14.Google Scholar
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    The principal disputes are outlined in ibid., pp. 11 and 29–30.Google Scholar
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    This involved not only ASEAN but also its seven dialogue partners together with China, Russia, Vietnam, Laos and Papua New Guinea.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© David Armstrong, Lorna Lloyd and John Redmond 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Armstrong
  • Lorna Lloyd
  • John Redmond

There are no affiliations available

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