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Italy: referendums and initiatives from the origins to the crisis of a democratic regime

Chapter

Abstract

During the process of state unification between 1848 and 1860, some referendums were called to ratify the annexation of Italian regions and provinces to the Kingdom of Piedmont and Sardinia. These votes were generally called plebiscites: all males who were already 21 years old could vote even though the franchise was then much more restricted on various grounds of age and education. Many communal referendums took place in the first two decades of the twentieth century (Basile, 1994). However, the first two national popular votes were promoted by the fascist regime in 1929 and 1934 to compel and make visible a popular consensus in favour of the authoritarian regime. Those two votes were neither fair nor competitive.

Keywords

Party System Direct Democracy Civil Liability Popular Vote Partial Annulment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1996

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