State-Making, State-Breaking and State Failure: Explaining the Roots of ‘Third World’ Insecurity

  • Mohammed Ayoob


There are two significant realities of the current international scene which form the backdrop to any discussion of the formation and disintegration of states in the last decade of the twentieth century. The first is the incontrovertible fact that the overwhelming majority of conflicts since the end of the Second World War have been located in the ‘Third World’. The second is the equally unassailable fact that most conflicts in the ‘Third World’ have been, and are, either primarily intranstate in character or possess a substantial intra-state dimension even if they appear to the outside observer to be inter-state conflicts.


National State Political Participation International System International Norm Political Order 
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© The Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs (DGIS)/The Netherlands Institute of International Relations Clingendael 1996

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  • Mohammed Ayoob

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