Beyond the Liberal Hour



So wrote commentator Geoff Mulgan in November 1991, exactly two years after the fall of the Berlin Wall. Back in November 1989, the television pictures of young East Berliners atop the Wall with pickaxes, hacking away at the tyranny that had imprisoned them for thirty years, seemed to capture the new spirit of freedom spreading through Europe. After a century during which the continent had been first ravaged by two world wars and then torn apart by the Cold War, the crumbling of the Wall suggested too a crumbling away of the past. It was, many wanted to believe, the birth of a new era of peace and prosperity in European affairs.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes and References

  1. 1.
    Geoff Mulgan, ‘Nazi Business’, Marxism Today, (November 1991).Google Scholar
  2. 5.
    Frank Furedi, Mythical Past, Elusive Future: History and Society in an Anxious Age ( London: Pluto Press, 1990 ) p. 172.Google Scholar
  3. 6.
    Cited in John Stevenson, ‘Has Planning a Future?’, in J. C. D. Clark (ed.), Ideas and Politics in Modern Britain ( London: Macmillan, 1990 ) p. 235.Google Scholar
  4. 8.
    Daniel Bell, Sociological Journeys: Essays 1960–1980 ( London: Heinemann, 1980 ) p. 149.Google Scholar
  5. 9.
    Karl Pearson, National Life from the Standpoint of Science ( London: A. & C. Black, 1905 ) p. 21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 10.
    Theodore Roosevelt, ‘The Winning of the West’, in The Works of Theodore Roosevelt ( New York: Scribner’s, 1926 ) vol. 9, p. 57.Google Scholar
  7. 11.
    UNESCO, Conference for the Establishment of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation, 16 Nov. 1945, p. 93.Google Scholar
  8. 12.
    See Paul Gordon Lauren, Power and Prejudice: The Politics and Diplomacy of Racial Discrimination ( London: Westview Press, 1988 ) pp. 76–101.Google Scholar
  9. 13.
    Ashley Montagu, Statement on Race, ( London: Oxford University Press, 1972 ).Google Scholar
  10. 19.
    President’s Committee on Civil Rights, To Secure These Rights (Washington DC: Government Printing Office, 1947) pp. 111, 166.Google Scholar
  11. 20.
    N. Deakin, Colour, Citizenship and British Society ( London: Panther, 1969 ).Google Scholar
  12. 21.
    I. Katznelson, Black Men, White Cities: Race Relations and Migration in the United States 1900–1930 and Britain 1948–68 ( London: Oxford University Press for the Institute of Race Relations, 1973 ) p. 126Google Scholar
  13. 21.
    Michael Banton, Promoting Racial Harmony (Cambridge University Press, 1985) p. 126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 22.
    Anthony Thwaite (ed.), Selected Letters of Philip Larkin ( London: Faber & Faber, 1992 ).Google Scholar
  15. 23.
    Anthony Thwaite, ‘Introduction’, Larkin at Sixty (London: 1982) p. 11Google Scholar
  16. 23.
    Alan Gardiner, ‘Larkin’s England’ in Linda Cookson and Bryan Loughrey (eds), Critical, Essays on Philip Larkin: The Poems ( London: Longman, 1988 ) p. 62Google Scholar
  17. 23.
    Andrew Motion, Larkin ( London: Routledge, 1982 ) p. 20.Google Scholar
  18. 26.
    Cited in Keith Tompson, Under Seige: Racial Violence in Britain Today ( Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1988 ) p. 62.Google Scholar
  19. 28.
    Cited in Shirley Joshi and Bob Carter, ‘The Role of Labour in the Creation of a Racist Britain’, Race and Class, vol. 25, no. 3 (1984).Google Scholar
  20. 29.
    Cited in Zig Layton-Henry, The Politics of Immigration ( Oxford: Blackwell, 1992 ) p. 34.Google Scholar
  21. 31.
    Cited in Joshi and Carter, ‘The Role of Labour in the Creation of a Racist Britain’, Race and Class (1984)Google Scholar
  22. 34.
    Cited in Robert Miles and Annie Phizacklea, White Man’s Country: Racism in British Politics ( London: Pluto, 1984 ) pp. 27–8.Google Scholar
  23. 37.
    For an excellent account of the background to the Notting Hill riots see Edward Pilkington, Beyond the Mother Country: West Indians and the Notting Hill White Riots ( London: I. B. Tauris, 1988 ).Google Scholar
  24. 41.
    Richard Crossman, The Diaries of a Cabinet Minister (vol. 1 ) ( London: Jonathan Cape, 1975 ).Google Scholar
  25. 42.
    Cited in Sheila Patterson, Immigration and Race Relations in Britain 1960–1967 ( London: Oxford University Press for the Institute of Race Relations, 1969 ) p. 113.Google Scholar
  26. 46.
    Sir Arthur Hoare, Chairman of Middlesex County Council’s Education Committee, Middlesex County Times, 2 Nov. 1963; cited in Patterson, Immigration and Race Relations in Britain pp. 110–11.Google Scholar
  27. 50.
    Ministère du Travail/Secrétariat d’Etat aux Travailleurs Immigrés, Immigration et 7e Plan ( Paris: La Documentation Français, 1977 ).Google Scholar
  28. 53.
    L’Usine Nouvelle 26 March 1970; cited in F. Gaspard and C. Servan-Schreiber, La Fin des Immigrés (Paris: Seuil, 1985).Google Scholar
  29. 54.
    C. Wihtol de Wenden, Les Immigrés et la Politique ( Paris: Presses de la Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques, 1988 ).Google Scholar
  30. 55.
    C. Calvez, ‘Extraits du Rapport de Corentin Calvez sur le Problème des Traivailleurs Étrangers’, Hommes et Migrations, no. 768 (1969).Google Scholar
  31. 56.
    Calvez, ‘Extraits du Rapport de Corentin Calvez’, Hommes et Migration (1969).Google Scholar
  32. 57.
    Maxim Silverman, Deconstructing the Nation: Immigration, Racism and Citizenship in France ( London: Routledge, 1992 ) p. 86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 58.
    T. Nairn, The Break-up of Britain ( London: Verso, 1981 ) p. 274.Google Scholar
  34. 63.
    Midge Decter, ‘How the Rioters won’, Commentary (Fall 1992 ).Google Scholar
  35. 64.
    James G. Shields, ‘Anti-Semitism in France: the Spectre of Vichy’, Patterns of Prejudice, vol. 24, nos. 2–4 (1990).Google Scholar
  36. 66.
    Thomas Byrne Edsall, ‘Willie Horton’s Message’, New York Review of Books, 13 Feb. 1992.Google Scholar
  37. 67.
    Norman Tebbit, ‘Fanfare for Being British’, The Field (May 1990).Google Scholar
  38. 68.
    Colin Holmes, John Bull’s Island: Immigration and British Society,1871–1971 ( London: Macmillan, 1988 )CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 68.
    J. Garrard, The English and Immigration 1880–1910 (Oxford University Press, 1971 )Google Scholar
  40. 68.
    B. Gainer, The Alien Invasion: The Origins of the Aliens Act 1905 ( London: Heinemann, 1972 )Google Scholar
  41. 68.
    A. Dummet and A. Nichol, Subjects, Citizens, Aliens and Others: Nationality and Immigration Law ( London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1990 )Google Scholar
  42. 68.
    L. Sponza, Italian Immigrants in Nineteenth-Century Britain: Images and Realities (Leicester University Press, 1988 )Google Scholar
  43. 68.
    R. Panayi, The Enemy in Our Midst: Germans in Britain During the First World War ( New York: Berg, 1991 )Google Scholar
  44. 68.
    D. Cesarani, ‘Anti-Alienism in England After the First World War’, Immigrants and Minorities, vol. 6 (1987).Google Scholar
  45. 70.
    G. Noiriel, Le Creuset Français: Histoire de l’Immigration XIXe — XXe Siècles ( Paris: Seuil, 1988 )Google Scholar
  46. 70.
    C. Wihtol de Wenden, Les Immigrés et La Politique ( Paris: Presses de la Fondation National des Sciences Politiques, 1988 ).Google Scholar
  47. 71.
    Mark Almond, ‘Europe’s Immigration Crisis’, National Interest, no. 29 (Fall 1992 )Google Scholar
  48. 72.
    Barry Buzan, ‘Global Security in the New World Order’, International Affairs, vol. 67, no. 3 (Jul. 1991).Google Scholar
  49. 73.
    Paul Johnson, ‘How to restore the good name of colonialism’, Spectator, 9 Jan. 1993.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kenan Malik 1996

Authors and Affiliations

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations