The Second Collapse

  • Richard T. Phillips


To a country grown accustomed to the depredations imposed and the privileges demanded by the Western powers, the Japanese onslaught from 1931 to 1945 represented a heightened danger from the maritime side of China. Here was a conquering force which had definite ambitions for a monopoly of control in China, either to be exercised directly or through collaborationist governments which would serve Japan’s whim. The result was almost a return to the earlier experience of overall conquest of China by outsiders, but this time it was carried out by a country which, although once in awe of China, had now progressed to account China as backward and in need of guidance. Although the Japanese had reached their position of military strength with the help of Western-style industry and training, they regarded many aspects of the West as unacceptable. In particular in the 1930s they attacked liberalism and communism as threats to the Eastern way of life. They anticipated the stemming of Western influence in China by the promotion of the older ideologies of China and by restricting China’s role to that of provider of raw materials for Japan’s industry.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Groll, Elizabeth, Feminism and Socialism in China (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1978); a general introduction to women’s history in modern China.Google Scholar
  2. Feuerwerker, Albert, Economic Trends in the Republic of China 1912–1949 (Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, Michigan University, 1977).Google Scholar
  3. Howe, Christopher, China’s Economy: A Basic Guide (London: Granada, 1978).Google Scholar
  4. Spence, Jonathan D.,The Gate of Heavenly Peace: The Chinese and their Revolution, 1895–1980 (New York: Viking, 1981); a history focusing on intellectuals and their writings.Google Scholar
  5. Tan, Chester C., Chinese Political Thought in the Twentieth Century (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1971).Google Scholar
  6. Yang, C.K., Religion in Chinese Society (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1961).Google Scholar
  7. Bianco, Lucian (tr. M. Bell). Origins of the Chinese Revolution 1915–1949 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1971).Google Scholar
  8. Harrison, James P., The Long March to Power: A History of the Chinese Communist Party, 1921–72 (New York: Praeger, 1973).Google Scholar
  9. Schram, Stuart R., Mao Tse-tung (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1966).Google Scholar
  10. Schram, Stuart, R., The Thought of Mao Tse-tung (Cambridge- Cambridge University Press, 1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gittings, John, The World and China, 1922–1972 (London: Eyre Methuen, 1974).Google Scholar
  12. Quested, Rosemary KI., Sino-Russian Relations: A Short History (Sydney: Allen and Unwin, 1984).Google Scholar
  13. Schaller, Michael, The United States and China in the Twentieth Century (Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 1990).Google Scholar
  14. Wang Gungwu, China and the World since 1949: The Impact of Independence, Modernity and Revolution (London: Macmillan, 1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ch’i Hsi-sheng, Nationalist China at War: Military Defeats and Political Collapse, 1937–1945 (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1982).Google Scholar
  16. Eastman, Lloyd E., Seeds of Destruction: Nationalist China in War and Revolution, 1937–1949 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1984).Google Scholar
  17. Sih, Paul K.T. (ed.) Nationalist China during the Sino-Japanese War, 1937–1945 (Hicksville, N.Y.: Exposition Press, 1978).Google Scholar
  18. Chen Yung-fa, Making Revolution: the Communist Movement in Eastern and Central China, 1937–1945 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986).Google Scholar
  19. Goldstein, Steven M. and Hartford, Kathleen (eds) Single Sparks: China’s Rural Revolutions (Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1989).Google Scholar
  20. Johnson, Chalmers, Peasant Nationalism and Communist Power: The Emergence of Revolutionary China, 1937–1945 (Stanford, Stanford University Press, 1962).Google Scholar
  21. Selden, Mark, The Yenan Way in Revolutionary China (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1971).Google Scholar
  22. Hinton, William, Fanshen: A Documentary of Revolution in a Chinese Village (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1966); the classic account of land reform in a north China village.Google Scholar
  23. Levine, Steven I., Anvil of Victory: The Communist Revolution in Manchuria, 1945–1948 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1987).Google Scholar
  24. Pepper, Suzanne, Civil War in China: The Political Struggle, 1945–1949 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Richard T. Phillips 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard T. Phillips

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations