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European Integration: An American Intelligence Connection

  • Richard J. Aldrich
Part of the S. Antony’s/Macmillan Series book series

Abstract

‘newspapers, radio stations, magazines, airlines, ships, businesses, and voluntary organizations had been bought, subsidized, penetrated or invented as assets for the cold war’ .1

After 1945, many in Europe and the United States presumed rapid European unification to be a key precondition of stabilisation and reconstruction in postwar Europe. The encouragement of European unification constituted a central and consistent component of American President Harry Truman’s policy, and received even greater emphasis under his successor Dwight Eisenhower. This chapter suggests that one of the central achievements of political elites associated with the European Movement was to secure substantial covert financial assistance from senior figures in the American intelligence community, notably General William J. Donovan and Allen Welsh Dulles.2 The European Movement led a prestigious group of national public organisations pressing for rapid unification, focusing their efforts on the Council of Europe. This prominent body counted Winston Churchill, Paul-Henri Spaak, Konrad Adenauer, Leon Blum and Alcide de Gasperi as its five Presidents of honour. But the Movement had extreme difficulty in raising substantial campaign funds to promote the message of unity in Europe.

Keywords

European Unity Labour Party American Foreign Policy Marshall Plan European Youth 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes and References

  1. 1.
    Thomas W. Braden, head of CIA International Organisations Division 1951–4, ‘The Birth of the CIA’, American Heritage, vol. 28 (February 1977), p. 13.Google Scholar
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  43. 53.
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    Short references to CIA links appear in three useful works: Arnold J. Zurcher, The Struggle to Unite Europe, 1940–1958 (New York, 1958), p. 25;Google Scholar
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  56. 65.
    Barnes, ‘The Secret Cold War’, pp. 666–7; Pomian, Joseph Retinger, pp. 216, 228, 237; Miscamble, George F. Kennan, p. 204. Undoubtedly, at this time funds were reaching other federalist campaigners by various discreet channels. The labour historian Filipelli has convincingly documented the American funding of ‘Western Union’ campaigns by Luigi Gedda and Catholic Action in Italy; Page to Kennan, 11 October 1948, 865.00/10/1148, RG 59; American Ambassador to Robert Lovett, 11 October 1948, 865.00/10/1148, RG 59, all quoted in Fillipeli, American Labor, pp. 150–1. Gedda was also associated with ACUE; see his entry in ACUE, The Union of Europe (New York, 1950), at 9/1/10, Duncan Sandys papers, Churchill College, Cambridge.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1995

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  • Richard J. Aldrich

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