European Integration: An American Intelligence Connection

  • Richard J. Aldrich
Part of the S. Antony’s/Macmillan Series book series


‘newspapers, radio stations, magazines, airlines, ships, businesses, and voluntary organizations had been bought, subsidized, penetrated or invented as assets for the cold war’ .1

After 1945, many in Europe and the United States presumed rapid European unification to be a key precondition of stabilisation and reconstruction in postwar Europe. The encouragement of European unification constituted a central and consistent component of American President Harry Truman’s policy, and received even greater emphasis under his successor Dwight Eisenhower. This chapter suggests that one of the central achievements of political elites associated with the European Movement was to secure substantial covert financial assistance from senior figures in the American intelligence community, notably General William J. Donovan and Allen Welsh Dulles.2 The European Movement led a prestigious group of national public organisations pressing for rapid unification, focusing their efforts on the Council of Europe. This prominent body counted Winston Churchill, Paul-Henri Spaak, Konrad Adenauer, Leon Blum and Alcide de Gasperi as its five Presidents of honour. But the Movement had extreme difficulty in raising substantial campaign funds to promote the message of unity in Europe.


European Unity Labour Party American Foreign Policy Marshall Plan European Youth 
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Notes and References

  1. 1.
    Thomas W. Braden, head of CIA International Organisations Division 1951–4, ‘The Birth of the CIA’, American Heritage, vol. 28 (February 1977), p. 13.Google Scholar
  2. See also Kim Philby, My Silent War (London, 1968), p. 116. There is little documentation on ACUE in the US National Archives (USNA). The working files of ACUE, about one hundred in number, are available in the Special Collection, Lauinger Library, Georgetown University, Washington DC (ACUE/LL). ACUE’s published material was deposited in the Hoover Institute on War Revolution and Peace, Stanford, California (ACUE/HIWRP). A single large file of ACUE papers is also located at File 2, Box 4, Walter Bedell Smith papers, Dwight D. Eisenhower Library, Kansas (WBS/DDE). I would like to acknowledge the support of the American Council of Learned Societies, the Fulbright Commission and the Economic and Social Research Council. Thanks also to Mark Deavin, John W. Young and Geoffrey Warner for comments on an earlier version of this chapter. Errors remain the responsibility of the author.Google Scholar
  3. 2.
    Geoffrey Warner, ‘Eisenhower, Dulles and the Unity of Western Europe, 1955–1957’, International Affairs, vol. 69 (1993), p. 320. On intelligence and cold war history,CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  9. 3.
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  17. 9.
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  20. 10.
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  22. 12.
    Memo by Joyce to Wisner, ‘National Committee for Free Europe’, 19 October 1950, Political and Psychological Warfare file, box 12, Records of the Policy Planning Staff, 1947–53, Lot Files 64 D 563, RG 59, USNA; Meyer, Facing Reality, pp. 110–11.Google Scholar
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  26. 20.
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  29. 23.
    The delegates that Churchill referred to were primarily from the Assembly of Captive European Nations: Address by Churchill to the ACUE, New York, 29 March 1949, folder 2, ACUE/LL. The Committee for a Free and United Europe existed until January 1949; minutes of the American Committee for a Free and United Europe, 5 January 1949, folder 90, ACUE/LL. On liberation see Beatrice Heuser, ‘Covert Action within British and American Concepts of Containment, 1948–51’, in Richard J. Aldrich (ed.), British Intelligence, Strategy and the Cold War. 1945–51 (London, 1992), pp. 65–84.Google Scholar
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  31. 26.
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  32. 27.
    ‘Report to the Directors of the ACUE’, by Durkee, May 1952, pp. 7–8, WBS/DDE.Google Scholar
  33. 28.
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  34. 30.
    ‘Report to the Directors of the ACUE’, by Durkee, May 1952, pp. 7–10, WBS/DDE.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Katz subsequently became a Professor of International Law at Harvard University: R. Harris Smith, OSS: The Secret History of America’s First Central Intelligence Agency (Berkeley, 1972), p. 104.Google Scholar
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  37. 36.
    Braden, confidential memo on the ACUE, to Bedell Smith, 6 July 1950, WBS/DDE.Google Scholar
  38. 37.
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  39. 47.
    Donovan to Bedell Smith, 25 July 1951, WBS/DDE. Report to Directors of ACUE, by Durkee, July 1951, WBS/DDE; European Youth Campaign, 1953, CCS/P/2, box 1, ACUE/HIWRP.Google Scholar
  40. 48.
    Report to Directors of ACUE, by Durkee, July 1951, WBS/DDE.Google Scholar
  41. 50.
    In 1951 the ACUE proposed to offer $65,000 specifically for the Youth Declaration programme; Minutes of Annual Meeting, 24 April 1951, WBS/DDE; Report to Directors of ACUE, by Durkee, July 1951,Google Scholar
  42. ibid. Summary of the Report of Commission ‘B’: The European Training of Young Exiles from Central and Eastern Europe and their Contribution Towards the Integration and Unification of Europe, June 1953, box 1, ACUE/HIWRP.Google Scholar
  43. 53.
    Coleman, The Liberal Conspiracy, pp. 1–17; Braden to Langer, 12 January 1950, file: ACUE, box 9, Langer papers, Harvard University Archives; Langer to Braden, 20 January 1950, ibid.; Robin Winks, Cloak and Gown: Scholars in America’s Secret War (London, 1987), pp. 79–82, 495–6.Google Scholar
  44. 54.
    Burkhardt to Langer, 24 July 1950, enclosing confidential memo, ‘Special Issue on the Mind of Europe Mid-Century’, 13 June 1950, file: B-General, box 9, Langer papers, Harvard University Archives.Google Scholar
  45. 55.
    Braden to Bedell Smith, 21 June 1950, enclosing ‘College of Europe, Bruges, Belgium’, WBS/DDE.Google Scholar
  46. 57.
  47. Kuhn memorandum, ‘Nonmilitary activities of NATO’, 9 July 1950, File: TS, Box 4, Records of the Office of European Regional Affairs (1946–53), J. Graham Parsons, Lot 55 D 115, RG 59, USNA; Foster to Hughes, 6 March 1959, folder 89, ACUE/LL.Google Scholar
  48. 59.
    Address by Churchill to ACUE, New York, 29 March 1949, folder 2, ACUE/LL; Pimlott, Dalton Diary, pp. 399–401; Spaak address to ACUE, 1 April 1952, folder 9, ACUE/LL. Note by Raymond Aron and Eugen Kogon, ‘Conference: Germany and Europe’, September 1951, Exhibit B,Google Scholar
  49. Report to the Directors of ACUE, by Durkee, July 1951, WBS/DDE; Coleman, Liberal Conspiracy, pp. 19, 21, 37, 180, 220; Sandys to Sir Stuart Menzies (SIS), 6 October 1947, 15/3, Duncan Sandys papers, Churchill College, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  50. 61.
    Spaak, The Continuing Battle; Konrad Adenauer, Erinnerungen (Stuttgart, 1965–8);Google Scholar
  51. Léon Blum, L’Oeuvre de Leon Blum (Paris, 1954–72);Google Scholar
  52. Alcide de Gasperi, Discorsi politici (Rome, 1969).Google Scholar
  53. 62.
    Short references to CIA links appear in three useful works: Arnold J. Zurcher, The Struggle to Unite Europe, 1940–1958 (New York, 1958), p. 25;Google Scholar
  54. Robert Eringer, The Global Manipulators: The Bilderberg Group, The Trilateral Commission Covert Power Groups of the West (Bristol, 1980); Barnes, ‘The Secret Cold War’, pp. 667–7.Google Scholar
  55. 64.
    ACUE Statement of Receipts and Disbursements, 16 February 1949 to 31 January 1952, WBS/DDE. ACUE’s budget for 1952 was $400,000, Appendix IV, Exhibit 1, Report to the Directors of the ACUE, by Durkee, May 1952, WBS/DDE; Bedell Smith to Donovan, 12 January 1953, WBS/DDE. See also Hovey memo to the Board of Directors, 6 April 1960, folder 94, ACUE/LL.Google Scholar
  56. 65.
    Barnes, ‘The Secret Cold War’, pp. 666–7; Pomian, Joseph Retinger, pp. 216, 228, 237; Miscamble, George F. Kennan, p. 204. Undoubtedly, at this time funds were reaching other federalist campaigners by various discreet channels. The labour historian Filipelli has convincingly documented the American funding of ‘Western Union’ campaigns by Luigi Gedda and Catholic Action in Italy; Page to Kennan, 11 October 1948, 865.00/10/1148, RG 59; American Ambassador to Robert Lovett, 11 October 1948, 865.00/10/1148, RG 59, all quoted in Fillipeli, American Labor, pp. 150–1. Gedda was also associated with ACUE; see his entry in ACUE, The Union of Europe (New York, 1950), at 9/1/10, Duncan Sandys papers, Churchill College, Cambridge.Google Scholar

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© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1995

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  • Richard J. Aldrich

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