Le Pen: The Man and His Party
The Gaullist legacy means that French politics are in large part Presidential politics. The outcome of the referendum of October 1962 — which established the direct popular election of the President — has had a fundamental impact upon both French politicians and political parties. The presidential politics of the Fifth Republic has placed an enormous emphasis on the personality of party leaders. For political success you need at least two things: an attractive candidate and an efficient party machine to secure victory.
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