Crusted Agent to Media Expert: The Changing Face of Campaigns



Even a cursory examination of political campaigning in the limited electoral democracy of the Victorian era offers parallels with modern-day activities and dispels any nostalgic idea that the past provides a state of grace from which modern campaigners have fallen. H.J. Hanham comments on the personalisation of elections around the formidable figures of the major party leaders, Gladstone and Disraeli, ‘in much the same way as the Conservatives magnified the appeal of Sir Winston Churchill in 1945’.2 Election campaigning issues were usually few, and frequently there was just one national topic, such as the abolition of income tax (1874) or Irish Home Rule (1886). The campaigning slogan, ‘the cry’, was handed down by party leaders to their followers.


Prime Minister Election Campaign Party Leader Labour Party Conservative Party 
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Copyright information

© Margaret Scammell 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Politics and Communication StudiesUniversity of LiverpoolUK

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