Advertisement

The Years of Forced Development, 1928–30

  • E. A. Rees
Part of the Studies in Soviet History and Society book series

Abstract

The introduction of the First Five Year Plan transformed the policymaking environment in the USSR. It sought to establish a comprehensive plan for the development of the economy, but focused primarily on heavy industry and agriculture. The modernisation of the railway system to meet the expanding needs of the economy and the defence requirements of the country occupied a vital but secondary role. The plan for the railways has to be seen against the background of the recovery staged in the mid-1920s. NKPS’s participation in the formulation and revision of the plan provides a case-study of the impact of institutional lobbies on policy formation within the context of the planned economy.1

Keywords

Forced Development Heavy Industry Fixed Capital Freight Transport Rolling Stock 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    In this chapter, I have drawn heavily on K. Nagatsuna, ‘A Utopian-Ideologue in Soviet Industrialisation: S. A. Bessonov and Transport Reconstruction Debates, 1928–1930’, paper presented to the Soviet Industrialisation Project Seminar, CREES, University of Birmingham, 1987.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    On Sulimov, see Bol’shaya Sovetskaya Entsiklopaediya (M., 1976), vol. 25, pp. 62–3. The other collegium members were I. A. Grunin, Yu. V. Rudyi, L. P. Serebryakov, E. V. Polyudov, D. V. Poluyan, A. S. Andreichik, A. G. Ishchenko, V. I. Zof, M. E. Bystrov, I. N. Mironov, N. I. Popov and V. N. Chernyi.Google Scholar
  3. 9.
    J. N. Westwood, et al., ‘The Railways’, in R. W. Davies (ed.), From Tsarism to the New Economic Policy, p. 182. R. W. Davies, The Soviet Economy in Turmoil, pp. 50–1, ft. 10. Ibid., pp. 182, 185, 187; Davies, op.cit., p. 56.Google Scholar
  4. 12.
    J. N. Westwood, op.cit., p. 182.Google Scholar
  5. 13.
    See Kaganovich’s comments at the Central Committee plenum in February 1937, Voprosy Istorii, 1993, vol. 9, p. 13.Google Scholar
  6. 14.
    Ibid., p. 45.Google Scholar
  7. 15.
    M. Dobb, Soviet Economic Development since 1917, pp. 217, 221, 275, cites V. P. Timoshenko, Russia and the Wheat Problem, pp. 332–3, 421, 429.Google Scholar
  8. 18.
    Planovoe khozyaistvo (hereafter PKh), 1925, no. 5, pp. 78–87.Google Scholar
  9. 19.
    Stalin, Sochineniya, vii, p. 318.Google Scholar
  10. 21.
    PKh, 1927, no. 1, p. 94 (Mekk).Google Scholar
  11. 22.
    E. H. Carr and R. W. Davies, Foundations of a Planned Economy I, pp. 904–7; Industrializatsiya, 1926–1928 (1969), p. 511.Google Scholar
  12. 23.
    Trans Gaz, 24 May 1928; Trans Gaz., 7 June 1928 (obituary).Google Scholar
  13. 24.
    ST, 1934, no. 13, p. 17 (Sidorov).Google Scholar
  14. 25.
    Sovetskaya istoricheskaya entsiklopaediya, (M., 1980), vol. 9, p. 298; Westwood (1982), p. 26.Google Scholar
  15. 27.
    PKh, 1927, no. 1, pp. 105–6.Google Scholar
  16. 28.
    Bol’shevik, 1927, no. 7–8, pp. 67–77 (Kalatov); no. 10–11, pp. 90–8 (Nikulkhin).Google Scholar
  17. 29.
    Ibid., pp. 17–18, 23–8.Google Scholar
  18. 32.
    ZhT (1970), pp. 39–45; Westwood (1982), pp. 28–9. Trans i khoz, 1930, no. 5, p. 134.Google Scholar
  19. 36.
    E. Zaleski, Planning for Economic Growth in the Soviet Union, 1918–1932 (Chapel Hill, 1971), pp. 44–5.Google Scholar
  20. 37.
    Hunter, op.cit., pp. 47–8; Westwood (1982), p. 22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 39.
    PKh, 1929, no. 1, pp. 127, 140–1 (B-Kogan).Google Scholar
  22. 40.
    Tran i khoz, 1928, no. 2, pp. 18–25 (Chekhovskii).Google Scholar
  23. 43.
    Tran i khoz, 1928, no. 6, pp. 3–6.Google Scholar
  24. 46.
    On Bessonov’s career, see Nagatsuna, op.cit., p. 6. Trans i khoz, 1928, no. 8. p. 3.Google Scholar
  25. 47.
    PKh, 1928, no. 8, p. 44 (Strumilin).Google Scholar
  26. 48.
    PKh, 1928, no. 7, p. 66.Google Scholar
  27. 50.
    EZh, 2 March 1928; 4, 6 April 1928. PKh, 1928, no. 8, pp. 20–54; PKh, 1927, no. 4, pp. 43–66.Google Scholar
  28. 55.
    Bol’shevik, 1929, no. 8, pp. 41–50. On Bessonov’s advocacy of rational regionalisation, see PKh, 1928, no. 6, p. 78; Trans Gaz, 29 November 1928.Google Scholar
  29. 56.
    Ibid., p. 49. See also Trans i khoz, 1929, no. 8, pp. 26–37.Google Scholar
  30. 57.
    PKh, 1929, no. 1, pp. 127–48 (B-Kogan).Google Scholar
  31. 59.
    EZh, 1 May 1928; Kommunisticheskaya revolyutsiya, 1929, no. 7, pp. 20–7.Google Scholar
  32. 60.
    A. Erlich, The Soviet Industrialisation Debate, 1924–1928 (New York, 1960), pp. 26, 63–4, 70.Google Scholar
  33. 61.
    Nagatsuna, op.cit., p. 22.Google Scholar
  34. 62.
    Kommunisticheskaya revolutsiya, 1929, no. 10–11, pp. 40–9.Google Scholar
  35. 64.
    PKh, 1929, no. 8, pp. 235–42.Google Scholar
  36. 65.
    Nagatsuna, op.cit., p. 16.Google Scholar
  37. 67.
    E. Zaleski, op.cit., pp. 338–41.Google Scholar
  38. 68.
    Shestnadtsataya konferentsiya VKP(b), stenograficheskii otchet (M., 1962), pp. 481–2.Google Scholar
  39. 69.
    Ibid., pp. 40, 42. See also Hunter, op.cit., p. 46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 73.
    E. Zaleski, op.cit., pp. 309, 313–14.Google Scholar
  41. 75.
    E. Zaleski, op.cit., p. 67, ft. 196.Google Scholar
  42. 77.
    G. T. Grinko, The Five Year Plan of the Soviet Union (London, 1930), p. 205.Google Scholar
  43. 78.
    Trans Gaz, 1 June 1929; Iz, 2 June 1929; Westwood (1982), pp. 112, 115.Google Scholar
  44. 83.
    E. Zaleski, op.cit., pp. 332, 371, 374, 338–40.Google Scholar
  45. 84.
    E. Zaleski, op.cit., pp. 332, 371, 374, 338–40; R. W. Davies, The Soviet Economy in Turmoil, p. 379, fn. 8.Google Scholar
  46. 86.
    R. W. Davies et al., Soviet Government Officials, 1922–41: A Handlist (CREES, Birmingham University, 1989), p. 99. TPG, 21 September 1929. The commission membership as established in September was D. E. Sulimov (chairman), M. A. Chernov, P. S. Shushkov, G. I. Blagonravov, N. A. Uglanov, V. I. Mezhlauk, I. N. Mironov.Google Scholar
  47. 88.
    E. Zaleski, op.cit., p. 371.Google Scholar
  48. 89.
    Ibid., p. 90.Google Scholar
  49. 90.
    Hunter, op.cit., pp. 51–2; B. P. Orlov, Razvitie transporta SSSR, 1917–1962 (M., 1963), pp. 133–4; K. N. Tverskoi, Za Bol’shevistskie Tempy Sotsialisticheskoi rekonstruktsii transport (M-L, 1931), pp. 37–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 91.
    Nagatsuna, op.cit., p. 25.Google Scholar
  51. 94.
    G. T. Grinko, The Five Year Plan of the Soviet Union (London, 1930), p. 190.Google Scholar
  52. 96.
    Trans i khoz, 1929, no. 10–11, pp. 12–20.Google Scholar
  53. 97.
    Trans i khoz, 1929, no. 12, pp. 12–42.Google Scholar
  54. 98.
    Trans Gaz, 28 December 1929. Trans i khoz, 1929, no. 12, p. 29.Google Scholar
  55. 100.
    E. Zaleski, op.cit., pp. 119, 382.Google Scholar
  56. 101.
    Trans i khoz, 1929, no. 8, p. 38 (Ruzdit). Trans Gaz, 7 March 1929.Google Scholar
  57. 103.
    See Bessonov article in Tran i khoz, 1929, no. 12, pp. 12–42. See also Tran i khoz, 1930, no. 5, pp. 11–15 (M. P. Belousov).Google Scholar
  58. 108.
    EZh, 31 May 1930; 1, 4, 7 June 1930; Pr. ek., 1930, no. 4–5, pp. 122–44.Google Scholar
  59. 112.
    Materialy zheleznodorozhnoi komissii, komanderovannyi v SShA, fevral’-mai 1930 g. (M., 1931) the report was edited by I. N. Mironov and K. B. Lauer, with a foreword from D. E. Sulimov. Trans i khoz, 1930, no. 1, pp. 5, Westwood (1982), pp. 76–7.Google Scholar
  60. 114.
    Ibid., pp. 214–28. E. H. Carr and R. W. Davies, Foundations of a Planned Economy 1 (Harmondsworth, 1974), pp. 465–74.Google Scholar
  61. 115.
    E. Gardner, Clark, The Economics of Soviet Steel, p. 215. On Weber, see Bol’shaya Sovetskaya Entsiklopaediya, vol. 4, p. 347.Google Scholar
  62. 116.
    Ibid., p. 215.Google Scholar
  63. 123.
    SZ, 1930, ii, 194–5. For Rukhimovich’s biography, see Bol’shaya Sovetskaya Entsiklopaediya (M., 1975), vol. 22, p. 435. G, 12 June 1930. In July 1930 A. M. Postnikov was made deputy narkom of NKPS and A. M. Arnol’dov, P. B. Bilik, A. V. Sevryugin and V. V. Fomin were appointed to NKPS’s collegium — see SZ, 1930, art. 243, 272.Google Scholar
  64. 125.
    I. V. Stalin, Sochineniya (M., 1955), xii, pp. 337, 347–8.Google Scholar
  65. 127.
    XVI s”ezd VKP, stenograficheskii otchet (M., 1930), pp. 273–5.Google Scholar
  66. 128.
    Shestnadtsatayi S”ezd Vsesoyuznoi Kommunisticheskoe partii (b) (M., 1931), pp. 360–7, 322 (Ordzhonikidze). G. K. Ordzhonikidze, Sta’ti i rechi, pp. 200–5.Google Scholar
  67. 129.
    Ibid., pp. 381–3.Google Scholar
  68. 130.
    Ibid., pp. 273–5.Google Scholar
  69. 136.
    Bol’shevik, no. 14, 1930, pp. 47–63; no. 22, 1930, pp. 63–78; Pr. Ek., no. 7, 1930, pp. 75–92; see also Dokukin’s article in Trans Gaz, 25 July 1929. R. W. Davies, The Soviet Economy in Turmoil, 1929–30, pp. 366–7.Google Scholar
  70. 137.
    Vestnik Kommunisticheskoi Akademii, 1930, xxxix, p. 90.Google Scholar
  71. 138.
    Bol’shaya Sovetskaya Entsiklopaediya, vol. 24 (1932), column 779.Google Scholar
  72. 139.
    Pr. ek., 1930, no. 8–9, pp. 141–5.Google Scholar
  73. 141.
    R. W. Davies et al., Soviet Government Officials, 1922–51: A Handlist, pp. 104–5.Google Scholar
  74. 146.
    SZ, 1930, no. 52, art. 601; for the abolition of the previous one, see E. H. Carr, Foundations of a Planned Economy, vol. 2, p. 353, ft. 3.Google Scholar
  75. 151.
    E. Zaleski, op.cit., pp. 371, 374, 332.Google Scholar
  76. 152.
    H. Hunter, op.cit., p. 393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 158.
    Shestnadtsataya konferentsiya VKP(b), pp. 151–2. (Osinskii and Sulimov); KPSS v rez., v, pp. 301–2; S. M. Kirov, Tri boevykh zadachi sotsialisticheskoi rekonstruktstii (Leningrad, 1931), p. 15.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© E. A. Rees 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. A. Rees
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Russian and East European StudiesUniversity of BirminghamUK

Personalised recommendations