Pan-Islamism and Pan-Arabism: Solution or Obstacle to Political Reconstruction in the Middle East?

  • Haifaa A. Jawad

Abstract

Pan-Islamism and pan-Arabism are two major political movements which have a profound effect on the politics of the Middle East. Pan-Islamism emerged during the late nineteenth century and, as the name suggests, pursues the aim of unifying the Muslim world via its commonly-held Islamic beliefs. It emphasizes the universality of Islam, and hence the union of Muslim peoples by arguing that ‘the idea of political unity is inherent in Islam, whose character is a priori international, no less than a complete moral, cultural, legal, social and political system’.1 This comprehensive character of the religion of Islam therefore has deeply influenced and affected the politics of pan-Islamism. The precedent to which the proponents of Pan-Islamism look is the dynamic period of early Islam, the ‘golden age’ in which the Muslim peoples were united.

Keywords

Europe Petroleum Income Syria Turkey 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    J. M. Landau, The Politics of Pan-Islam Ideology and Organization ( Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1990 ), p. 4.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    For more information see N. Ziadeh, ‘Arabism’, in E. Kedourie, Nationalism in Asia and Africa (Frank Cass, London, 1971), pp. 294–303.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    H. B. Sharabi, Nationalism and Revolution in the Arab World ( Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, London, 1966 ), pp. 4–5.Google Scholar
  4. 5.
    A. Hourani, A History of the Arab Peoples ( Faber and Faber, London, 1991 ), pp. 207–264.Google Scholar
  5. 6.
    S. G. Haim, Arab Nationalism: An Anthology ( University of California, Berkeley, 1962 ), p. 6.Google Scholar
  6. 7.
    P. Piscatori, Islam in a World of Nation States ( Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1986 ), p. 77.Google Scholar
  7. 8.
    A. Hourani, Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age 1798–1939 ( Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1983 ), pp. 73–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 13.
    A. Hourani, Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age 1798–1939 op. cit., pp. 222–44.Google Scholar
  9. 14.
    For more information see A. A. Duri, The Historical Formation of the Arab Nation ( Croom Helm and Centre for Arab Unity Studies, London, 1987 ), pp. 188–94.Google Scholar
  10. 15.
    A. Hourani, Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age 1798–1939 op. cit., pp. 271–3.Google Scholar
  11. 16.
    For more information, see M. Abdual Halim, The Muslim Brotherhood (in Arabic) ( Dar al-Da’wa, Cairo, 1981 ).Google Scholar
  12. 18.
    For more information, on the Muslim Brotherhood in Jordan, see Al-Obedy, The Muslim Brotherhood in Jordan and Palestine (in Arabic) ( Amman, Jordan, 1991 ).Google Scholar
  13. 19.
    E. Davis, ‘Ideology, Social Class and Islamic Radicalism in Modern Egypt’, in Said Amir Arjomand, From Nationalism to Revolutionary Islam ( Macmillan, London, 1984 ), pp. 150–1.Google Scholar
  14. 22.
    C. E. Butterworth, ‘Prudence Versus Legitimacy: the Persistent Theme in Islamic Political Thought’, in A. E. A. Dessouki, Islamic Resurgence in the Arab World ( Praeger, New York, 1982 ), pp. 97–8.Google Scholar
  15. 25.
    For more information, see S. Qutab, Al-Adalah al- Ijtimaiyya Fil-Islam ( Dar al-Sarok, Beirut, 1988 ).Google Scholar
  16. 27.
    E. Davis, ‘Ideology, Social Class and Islamic Radicalism in Modern Egypt’, in Said Amir Arjomand, From Nationalism to Revolutionary Islam, op. cit., pp. 140–56. The same view has been stressed by the speaker of the Jordanian Parliament, Dr Arabyat, in an interview conducted by the author in January 1992.Google Scholar
  17. 28.
    See Nazih N. M. Ayubi, ‘The Political Revival of Islam: The Case of Egypt’, International Journal of the Middle East, December 1980, p. 486.Google Scholar
  18. 29.
    See Nazih N. M. Ayubi, ‘The Politics of Militant Islamic Movements in the Middle East’, Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 36, no. 2, 1982, pp. 282–3.Google Scholar
  19. 31.
    For more information on this point, see J. Carmichael, The Shaping of the Arabs: A Study in Ethnic Identity ( Macmillan, New York, 1967 ), pp. 286–97.Google Scholar
  20. 32.
    Abbas Alnasrawi, Arab Nationalism, Oil, and the Political Economy of Dependency ( Greenwood Press, London, 1991 ), pp. 25–7.Google Scholar
  21. 33.
    Bassam Tibi, Arab Nationalism: A Critical Enquiry ( Macmillan, London, 1990 ), pp. 107–8.Google Scholar
  22. 34.
    S. N. Fisher, The Middle East: A History (Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1966 ), p. 353.Google Scholar
  23. 35.
    William Yale, The Near East: A Modern History ( Michigan State University Publications, East Lansing, 1958 ), p. 199.Google Scholar
  24. 36.
    G. Antonius, The Arab Awakening ( Capricorn Books, New York, 1965 ), pp. 106–7.Google Scholar
  25. 38.
    For more information, see W. R. Polk, The United States and the Arab World ( Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1969 ), pp. 107–8.Google Scholar
  26. 39.
    See F. J. Khouri, The Arab—Israeli Dilemma (Syracuse University Press, 1976 ), pp. 8–15.Google Scholar
  27. 40.
    J. A. Bill and C. Leiden, Politics in the Middle East, Second edition, ( Little, Brown and Company, New York, 1984 ), p. 308.Google Scholar
  28. 41.
    On this point, see S. Neil Macfarlane, Superpower Rivalry and Third World Radicalism: The Idea of National Liberation ( Croom Helm, London, 1985 )Google Scholar
  29. 43.
    See S. Amin, The Arab Nation ( Zed Press, London, 1978 ), pp. 50–8.Google Scholar
  30. 44.
    See M. H. Kerr, The Arab Cold War (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1971 ).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Haifaa A. Jawad 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Haifaa A. Jawad

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations