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Western Europe

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Abstract

The original treaties which form the basis of the European Community do not contain specific references to human rights. In the beginning, human rights did not constitute a major field of activities of the European Community.1 In later years this has changed, however. The first important step was the adoption in 1977 of a Joint Declaration on the Protection of Fundamental Freedoms by the European Commission, the Council of Ministers and the European Parliament. In it the three institutions stressed the prime importance they attach ‘to the protection of fundamental rights, as derived in particular from the constitutions of the Member States and the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms.’2

Keywords

Foreign Policy Foreign Affair European Convention British Government Fundamental Freedom 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes

  1. 3.
    See Lammy Betten, The Incorporation of Fundamental Rights in the Legal Order of the European Communities, The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Institute, 1985.Google Scholar
  2. 7.
    For a reaction by the European Commission, see Johannes van der Klaauw, ‘European Community’, Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights, vol. 11, no. 2 (1993), pp. 211–12.Google Scholar
  3. 8.
    For a critical comment, see Johannes van der Klaauw, ‘European Community’, Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights, vol. 11, no. 1 (1993), p. 105, and vol. 11, no. 2 (1993), p. 210.Google Scholar
  4. 9.
    Cf. Johannes van der Klaauw, ‘European Community’, Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights, vol. 10, no. 2 (1992), pp. 206–7.Google Scholar
  5. 11.
    Cf. van der Klaauw, ‘European Community’ (note 9 above); also Johannes van der Klaauw, ‘European Community’, Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights, vol. 11, no. 3 (1993), pp. 323–30.Google Scholar
  6. 15.
    See also Alfred Pijpers, Elfriede Regelsberger and Wolfgang Wessels, ‘A Common Foreign Policy for Western Europe?’, in Alfred Pijpers, Elfriede Regelsberger and Wolfgang Wessels (eds), European Political Cooperation in the 1980s: A Common Foreign Policy for Western Europe?, Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1988, pp. 259–73.Google Scholar
  7. 16.
    Cf. William Wallace, ‘Old States and New Circumstances: The International Predicament of Britain, France and Germany’, in William Wallace and W.E. Patterson (eds), Foreign Policy Making in Western Europe: A Comparative Approach, Farnborough: Saxon House, 1978, pp. 31–55.Google Scholar
  8. 17.
    Michael Smith, Steve Smith and Brian White, British Foreign Policy: Tradition, Change and Transformation, London: Unwin Hyman, 1987Google Scholar
  9. P. Byrd (ed.), British Foreign Policy under Thatcher, Oxford: P. Allan, 1988Google Scholar
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  11. Michael Clarke, British External Policy-Making in the 1990s, London: Macmillan, 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. T. de Montbrial, ‘Die Aussenpolitik Frankreichs’, Europa Archiv, vol. 44, no. 10 (25 May 1989), pp. 283–90Google Scholar
  13. François Bujon de L’Estang, ‘France: Pour Une Nouvelle Politique Etrangère’, Politique Internationale, 58 (October 1992), pp. 177–92Google Scholar
  14. Daniel Verney, ‘The Dilemma of French Foreign Policy’, International Affairs, vol. 68, no. 4 (October 1992), pp. 655–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 18.
    Helmut Wagner, ‘The Federal Republic of Germany’s Foreign Policy Objectives’, Millenium: Journal of International Studies, vol. 17, no. 1 (1988), pp. 43–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Wolfram Hanrieder, Germany, America, Europe: Forty Years of German Foreign Policy, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989Google Scholar
  17. Hans-Dietrich Genscher, ‘The Foreign Policy of a United Germany’, Fletcher Forum of World Affairs, vol. 15, no. 2 (1991), pp. 87–94Google Scholar
  18. Gregor Schoellgen, Stationen Deutscher Aussenpolitik, München, 1992.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Helmut Kohl, ‘Menschenrechte-Demokratie Entwicklung’ (‘Human Rights-Democracy-Development’), speech on 3 November 1986, Bulletin Presse- und Informationsamt der Bundesregierung, no. 134, p. 1121 (translated from the original German).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    A. Burnett, Iron Britannia: Why Parliament Waged its Falklands War, London: Allison & Busby, 1982.Google Scholar
  21. 23.
    Hans-Dietrich Genscher, ‘The Foreign Policy of a United Germany’, The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs, vol. 15, no. 2 (Summer 1991), p. 93.Google Scholar
  22. 25.
    Menschenrechtsbericht der Bundesregiering für die 11. Legislaturperiode, Bonn: Deutscher Bundestag, 1990, p. 14, as cited by Wolfgang S. Heinz, ‘Deutsche Entwicklungspolitik, Politische Konditionalität und Durchsetzung der Menschenrechte’, in EPD Douzkmentation, Frankfurt am Main, 14 May 1992, p. 19.Google Scholar
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    R. Barre, Autournant du siècle. Principes et objectifs de politique étrangère (‘At the Turn of the Century. Principles and Aims of Foreign Policy’), Paris: Plon, 1988, p. 178.Google Scholar
  24. 35.
    Pierre Milza, ‘Droits de l’Homme: le Combat de la France’ (‘Human Rights: The Fight of France’) Politique Internationale, 41 (1988), pp. 25–36.Google Scholar
  25. 36.
    Amnesty International, Report 1993, London, 1993, pp. 131–2.Google Scholar
  26. 40.
    See Brian White, ‘Britain and East-West Relations’, in Michael Smith, Steve Smith and Brian White (eds), British Foreign Policy: Tradition, Change and Transformation, London: Unwin Hyman, 1988, p. 152.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Peter R. Baehr 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Leiden University and Utrecht UniversityThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Netherlands Institute of Human RightsThe Netherlands

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