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The Soviet Union and Its Successors

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Abstract

For the greater part of the post-Second World War period international relations were dominated by the East-West conflict, the struggle between the two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union. In that struggle human rights have played a role of considerable importance, especially since the signing of the Helsinki agreements of 1975 until the demise of the Soviet Union in 1991. Indeed, if one wants to understand world politics for the greater part of the twentieth century, the study of the foreign policy of the Soviet Union — as well as that of the United States — is indispensable. Although most of this is now a matter of the past, it is a still very recent past. Much of what is happening in Central and Eastern Europe can only be understood if one is aware of the major changes that have taken place very recently in political life in general in that part of the world, including in the area of human rights. That is why this book about the role of human rights in foreign policy contains a chapter on the foreign policy of what used to be the Soviet Union and its successors.

Keywords

Foreign Policy Universal Declaration National Sovereignty Political Prisoner Party Secretary 
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Notes

  1. 1.
    Winston S. Churchill, The Gathering Storm, London: Cassell & Co., 1948, p. 403.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Vernon V. Aspaturian, Process and Power in Soviet Foreign Policy, Boston: Little, Brown, 1971 Harry Gelman, ‘Gorbachev’s Dilemmas and his Conflicting Foreign Policy Goals’, Orbis (Summer 1986), pp. 231–47Google Scholar
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  5. 3.
    Alvin Z. Rubinstein, ‘Sources of Soviet Policy’, in Rubinstein (ed.), Soviet Foreign Policy since World War II, Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 2nd edn, 1971, p. 330.Google Scholar
  6. 5.
    W.M. Chvostov, ‘Bilanz eines halben Jahrhunderts sowjetischer Aussenpolitik’ (‘Balance Sheet of Half a Century of Soviet Foreign Policy’), in 50 Jahre Leninische Aussenpolitik (‘Fifty Years of Leninist Foreign Policy’), Deutsche Aussenpolitik, Sonderheft 1 (1968), pp. 29–30.Google Scholar
  7. 6.
    See Rubinstein, ‘Sources of Soviet Policy’ (note 3 above), p. 318 ff.; also E. Poppe, ‘Human Rights and Peaceful Coexistence’, Bulletin GDR Committee for Human Rights, vol. 14, no. 3 (1988), pp. 172–82.Google Scholar
  8. 7.
    Arie Bloed and Fried van Hoof, ‘Some Aspects of the Socialist View of Human Rights’, in A. Bloed and P. van Dijk (eds), Essays on Human Rights in the Helsinki Process, Dordrecht: Nijhoff, 1985, pp. 34–5.Google Scholar
  9. 8.
    United Nations General Assembly, Official Records, 183rd plenary meeting, 10 December 1948, p. 929.Google Scholar
  10. 9.
    V. Chkhikvadze, ‘Interstate Cooperation on Human Rights’, International Affairs (Moscow), 11 (1985), p. 32.Google Scholar
  11. 10.
    See N. Graf, ‘Indivisibility of Human Rights — A New Start’, Bulletin of the GDR Committee for Human Rights, no. 1/1986, p. 16Google Scholar
  12. E. Poppe and S. Poppe, ‘The Case for the Unity of Human Rights’, Bulletin of the GDR Committee for Human Rights, no. 2/1986, p. 75.Google Scholar
  13. 11.
    Vladimir Kartashkin, ‘The Socialist Countries and Human Rights’, in K. Vasak and P. Alston (eds), The International Dimensions of Human Rights, Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1982, p. 636; see also Bloed and van Hoof, ‘Some Aspects’ (note 7 above), pp. 106–7; Chkikhvadze, ‘Interstate Cooperation’ (note 9 above), p. 92.Google Scholar
  14. 12.
    Farrokh Jhabvala, ‘The Soviet Bloc’s View of the Implementation of Human Rights Accords’, Human Rights Quarterly, vol. 7, no. 4 (November 1985), p. 484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 13.
    UN General Assembly, Official Records, 183rd meeting, 10 December 1948, p. 925.Google Scholar
  16. 15.
    UN General Assembly, Official Records, 183rd plenary meeting, 10 December 1948, p. 927.Google Scholar
  17. 16.
    V. Chkikhvadze, ‘A Socialist Conception of the Rights of Man: Perestroika and the Rights of Man in the USSR’, paper for the World Congress of the International Political Science Association, Washington D.C., 1988, p. 23.Google Scholar
  18. see also Peter R. Baehr and Leon Gordenker, The United Nations in the 1990s, London: Macmillan, 2nd edn 1994, pp. 149–50.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Amnesty International, USSR: Human Rights in a Time of Change, London, 1989.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    For examples of anti-Amnesty publications, see Samuel Zivs, Anatomy of a Lie (1982)Google Scholar
  21. Oleg Vakulovsky, The False Bottom of Amnesty International (1987)Google Scholar
  22. Oleg Vakulovsky, ‘Amnesty’ With and Without its Greasepaint (1988).Google Scholar
  23. 21.
    See On Speaking Terms: An Unprecedented Human Rights Mission to the Soviet Union, Vienna: International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights, 1988. See also Max van der Stoel, ‘Human Rights in the Soviet Union’, SIM Newsletter Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights, vol. 6, no. 1 (1988), pp. 74–9.Google Scholar
  24. 22.
    Ger P. van den Berg, ‘Rechten van de Mens in de Russische Federatie’, (’Human Rights in the Russian Federation’), Internationale Spectator, vol. xlvi, nrs 7/8 (July/August 1992), pp. 408–14.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Peter R. Baehr 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Leiden University and Utrecht UniversityThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Netherlands Institute of Human RightsThe Netherlands

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