Policy Instruments



Governments command a great number of instruments which can be used to influence other governments’ policy. Such instruments vary roughly from ‘making a friendly request’ to military intervention. Between these two extremes lie many possibilities. The late Evan Luard, a British diplomat and scholar, has presented a list of such possibilities, which is discussed below.1


Foreign Policy Policy Instrument Security Council Military Intervention Fundamental Freedom 
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  1. 1.
    E. Luard, Human Rights and Foreign Policy, Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1981, pp. 26–7.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    It is to be distinguished from ‘parliamentary diplomacy’ or ‘conference diplomacy’, which applies mainly to multilateral fora. Cf. Johan Kaufmann, Conference Diplomacy: An Introductory Analysis, Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff, 2nd revised edn, 1988.Google Scholar
  3. 4.
    Cf. Leo Zwaak, ‘A Friendly Settlement in the European Inter-State Complaints against Turkey’, SIM Newsletter, no. 13, February 1986, pp. 44–8. This view was confirmed as recently as December 1992, when the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture issued a public statement which concluded that the practice of torture and other forms of severe ill-treatment of persons in police custody still remained widespread in Turkey. See European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, Public Statement on Turkey, adopted on 15 December 1992.Google Scholar
  4. 5.
    Cf. Dutch Human Rights and Foreign Policy Advisory Committee, Development Cooperation and Human Rights, The Hague: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1987, pp. 32–4.Google Scholar
  5. 8.
    Cf. Peter Malanczuk, Humanitarian Intervention and the Legitimacy of the Use of Force, Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis, 1993Google Scholar
  6. Adam Roberts, ‘Humanitarian War: Military Intervention and Human Rights’, International Affairs, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 429–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Nigel Rodley (ed.), To Loose the Bands of Wickedness: International Intervention in Defence of Human Rights, London: Brassey’s, 1992.Google Scholar
  8. 9.
    Cf. Peter Malanczuk, ‘The Kurdish Crisis and Allied Intervention in the Aftermath of the Second Gulf War’, European Journal of International Law, vol. 2 (1991), pp. 114–32.Google Scholar
  9. 12.
    Michael Akehurst, ‘Humanitarian Intervention’, in Hedley Bull, Intervention in World Politics, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1985, pp. 97–9.Google Scholar
  10. 13.
    Cf. Arie Bloed and Pieter van Dijk, ‘Human Rights and Non-Intervention’, in A. Bloed and P. van Dijk (eds), Essays on Human Rights in the Helsinki Process,Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff, 1985, pp. 61 ff.Google Scholar
  11. 14.
    R.J. Vincent, Non-Intervention and International Order, Princeton NJ.: Princeton University Press, 1974, p. 346.Google Scholar
  12. 15.
    Cf. Marc Bossuyt, ‘Human Rights and Non-intervention in Domestic Matters’, ICJ Review, 35 (December 1985), pp. 50–1.Google Scholar
  13. 16.
    RJ. Vincent, Human Rights and International Relations, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986, p. 66.Google Scholar
  14. 17.
    See Arie Bloed, ‘The CSCE System: Helsinki-2 Concluded: Progress Towards a “New” CSCE’, Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights, vol. 10, no. 3 (1992), pp. 336–46.Google Scholar
  15. 19.
    David Owen, Human Rights, London: Jonathan Cape, 1978, p. 2.Google Scholar
  16. See also Abraham M. Sirkin, ‘Can a Human Rights Policy be Consistent?’, in Peter G. Brown and Douglas MacLean (eds), Human Rights and U.S. Foreign Policy, Lexington Mass.: Lexington Books, 1979, pp. 199–213.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Peter R. Baehr 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Leiden University and Utrecht UniversityThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Netherlands Institute of Human RightsThe Netherlands

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