‘The rights of man, human rights, or fundamental rights, are names given to those elementary rights which are considered to be indispensable for the development of the individual.’1 Thus begins the memorandum, Human Rights and Foreign Policy, which was published in 1979 by the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs With the cited text the ministry made a commendable effort at clarifying its views on the subject; it opted for emphasizing the rights of individuals.


Foreign Policy Human Dignity Foreign Affair Universal Declaration Basic Document 
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  1. 2.
    Michael Ross Fowler, Thinking about Human Rights: Contending Approaches to Human Rights in U.S. Foreign Policy, Lanham: University Press of America, 1987, p. 70.Google Scholar
  2. 3.
    Maurice Cranston, What are Human Rights?, New York: Taplinger, 1973, p. 70.Google Scholar
  3. 4.
    Hedley Bull, ‘Human Rights and World Politics’, in Ralph Pettman (ed.), Moral Claims in World Affairs, London: Groom Helm, 1979, p. 79.Google Scholar
  4. 6.
    For the texts of these documents, see, for instance, Walter Laqueur and Barry Rubin (eds), The Human Rights Reader, New York: New American Library, rev. edn, 1989, pp. 59 ff.Google Scholar
  5. 7.
    See further, Farokh Jhabala, ‘On Human Rights and the Socio-Economic Context’, Netherlands International Law Review, XXXI (1984), p. 164.Google Scholar
  6. 8.
    See Gees Flinterman, ‘Three Generations of Human Rights’, in Jan Berting et al. (eds), Human Rights in a Pluralist World: Individuals and Collectivities, Westport and London: Meckler, 1990, pp. 75–82.Google Scholar
  7. 9.
    Katarina Tomasevksi, ‘The Right to Peace’, in Richard Pierre Claude and Burns H. Weston (eds), Human Rights in the World Community: Issues and Actions, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1989, p. 168. Reprinted from Current Research on Peace and Violence, vol. 5, no. 1 (1982), pp. 42–69.Google Scholar
  8. 11.
    See Philip Alston, ‘Conjuring Up New Human Rights: A Proposal for Quality Control’, American Journal of International Law, vol. 78, no. 3 (1984), pp. 607–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Peter R. Baehr 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Leiden University and Utrecht UniversityThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Netherlands Institute of Human RightsThe Netherlands

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