When the bulk of this chapter was written, April 1991, Bulgaria had not yet enacted a new constitution — though one was under discussion and a number of drafts had been produced — and consequently its ‘institutional architecture’ was only under construction. For this reason, the main focus of the piece is on how political power and authority had shifted since 1989, and on the role in the new political process, and the establishment of a new political consensus, of parliament, the presidency, the Communist and other parties, and the extra-parliamentary forces. In a postscript at the end of the chapter, account is taken of constitutional and other changes which have taken place since 1991, and which are beginning to give Bulgarian politics a more stable institutional character.


Trade Union Economic Reform Round Table Round Table Discussion Institutional Architecture 
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  1. 1.
    For English-language treatments of Bulgaria since 1945, see R. J. Crampton, A Short History of Modern Bulgaria, Cambridge, 1987, pp. 145–209; John D. Bell, The Bulgarian Communist Party from Blagoev to Zhivkov, Stanford, California, 1986, pp. 77–147; John R. Lampe, The Bulgarian Economy in the Twentieth Century, London, 1986, pp. 121–222; Robert J. McIntyre, Bulgaria: Politics, Economics and Society, London, 1988, which takes an indulgent attitude to the Zhivkov régime; and for a more detailed but earlier treatment of the years up to 1970, J. F. Brown, Bulgaria under Communist Rule, London, 1970.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    See Richard J. Crampton, ‘“Stumbling and Dusting Off,” or an Attempt to Pick a Path Through the Thicket of Bulgaria’s New Economic Mechanism’, Eastern European Politics and Societies, Vol. 2, No. 2 (Spring 1988), pp. 333–95.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    See R. J. Crampton, ‘The Intelligentsia, the ecology and the opposition in Bulgaria’, The World Today, Vol. 46, No. 2 (February 1990), pp. 23–26.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    For further details of the results, see below.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    BritishBroadcasting Corporation, Summary of World Broadcasts, Eastern Europe, 13 Dec. 1989. This source hereafter cited as SWB EE, with appropriate piece number and date. These reports have formed the basis for the information contained in this essay, but to save repetition and paper precise references have in the main been given only for direct quotations.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ibid., 29 March 1991.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    See R. J. Crampton, ‘The Bulgarian elections of 1990’, Representation, Vol. 29, no. 108, (Winter 1990), pp. 33–35.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    SWB EE, 29 March 1991.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ibid, 13 December 1989.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    In Bulgarian the suffix shtina is the equivalent of the Russian shchina and means the times, the polices, the atmosphere associated with the person to whose name the suffix is added.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    SWB EE, 26 October 1990.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    As with, for example, the tensions between nationalists and ethnic Turks. See SWB EE, 18 January 1991.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ibid., 3 December 1990.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ibid., 29 January 1991.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    See Misha Glenny, The Rebirth of History; Eastern Europe in the Age of Democracy, London, 1990, p. 176.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    The numbering of congresses had reverted to that used for the socialist party founded in 1891.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    SWB EE, 25 September 1990.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ibid., 30 October 1990.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kostadin Chakrov, Vrtoriya Etazh, Sofia, 1990, pp. 21–50 passim.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    In March 53.6 per cent approved of CITUB and 48.8 per cent of Podkrepa. Their respective disapproval ratings were 19.1 per cent and 26.2 per cent. Debati, 12 March 1991.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    SWB EE, 12 October 1990.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    For a full English text of the agreement see, The Insider: Bulgarian Digest Monthly, February 1991, pp. 13–15.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    SWB EE, 10 January 1991.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ibid., 11 January 1991.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ibid., 4 February 1991, and 7 February 1991.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ibid., 7 February 1991.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ibid., 11 January 1991.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ibid., 19 February 1991.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
  30. 30.
    This concluding section is based upon the relevant papers from SWB/EE, the Bulgarian Telegraph Agency’s daily reports and various Bulgarian newspapers.Google Scholar

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© School of Slavonic and East European Studies 1993

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  • Richard Crampton

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