The Keiretsu Business Conglomerates

  • Albrecht Rothacher


Japan’s economy is characterised by a dual structure: a top tier of large-scale, heavily capitalised and usually very profitable big corporations (providing one-third of private sector employment) coexisting with a majority of small and medium-sized enterprises which often operate as subcontractors and frequently enjoy less profitability and offer comparatively worse working conditions and wages.


Real Estate Group Company Hostile Takeover Fire Insurance Textile Pulp 
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  1. 2.
    John G. Roberts, Mitsui: Three Centuries of Japanese Business, 2nd edn (New York/Tokyo: Weatherhill, 1989) p. 3.Google Scholar
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    See Yasuo Mishima, The Mitsubishi: Its Challenge and Strategy (Greenwich, Conn./London: JAI Press, 1989).Google Scholar
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    Dodwell Marketing Consultants, Industrial Groupings in Japan (Tokyo: Dodwell, 1984–5) p. 6.Google Scholar
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    Keidanren, ‘The Significance of the SII Talks and Directions for the Future’, 14 May 1991, Typescript.Google Scholar
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    Robert Lawrence, Efficient or Exclusionist? The Import Behaviour of Japanese Corporate Groups Brookings Papers, 1991, vol. I.Google Scholar
  7. 30.
    James C. Abegglen, and George Stalk, Kaisha: The Japanese Corporation (Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle, 1987) pp. 185–6.Google Scholar
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    See Kiyoshi Kojima and Terutomo Ozawa, Japan’s General Trading Companies: Merchants of Economic Development (Paris: OECD Development Center Studies, 1984) pp. 28 and 48–50.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Albrecht Rothacher 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Albrecht Rothacher
    • 1
  1. 1.TokyoJapan

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