The Trade Agenda

  • Brian Hocking


One of the first documents bearing on America’s foreign relations to land on the desk of newly elected President George Bush came not, as one might have expected, from a federal agency such as the State Department or the Office of the Special Trade Representative, but from the World Trade Commission of the State of California.1 This memorandum, with its observations and recommendations on state and federal roles in export promotion and the trade policy processes, reflects, as earlier chapters have already suggested, a key factor in growing foreign policy localization; namely, an enhanced interest in foreign trade policy shown by localities and the interests they represent. The impact of this can be seen in a number of forms both at the national and international levels and is underscored by the observation of former US special trade representative, Robert S. Strauss, regarding his role during the Tokyo Round of GATT negotiations:

The Tokyo Round ... was, among other things, an exercise in domestic American politics at its best. In fact during my tenure as Special Trade Representative ... I spent as much time negotiating with domestic constituents (both industry and labour) and members of the US Congress as I did negotiating with our foreign trading partners.2


Trade Policy Uruguay Round Export Promotion Trade Promotion Trading Environment 
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Notes and References

  1. 1.
    Gilbert R. Winham, Trading with Canada: the Canada-US Free Trade Agreement ( New York: Priority Press, 1988 ).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brian W. Tomlin, ‘The stages of prenegotiation: the decision to negotiate North American Free Trade’, International Journal, 44(2), Spring 1989.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    F. Harrison, ‘US expected to take tough stand with Canada on talk of free trade’, Financial Post, 9 March 1985.Google Scholar
  4. 5.
    See Ronald A. Shearer, ‘Regionalism and international trade policy’, in John Whalley, Canada-United States Free Trade ( Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1985 ) pp. 326–35.Google Scholar
  5. 12.
    John F. Ontko, ‘Canada-US trade: Economic revolution is brewing’, State Government News, June 1987, p. 13.Google Scholar
  6. 13.
    Charles F. Doran, Forgotten Partnership: US-Canada Relations Today ( Toronto: Fitzhenry and Whiteside, 1984 ) p. 141.Google Scholar
  7. 14.
    I. William Zartman, ‘Prenegotiation: phases and functions’, International Journal, 44(2), Spring 1989.Google Scholar
  8. 16.
    C. Goar, ‘Glossing over the costs and benefits of free trade’, Toronto Star, 31 January 1985.Google Scholar
  9. 17.
    D. Martin, ‘Canada’s great trade debate’, New York Times, 23 January 1985.Google Scholar
  10. 18.
    F. Harrison, ‘Unease over US trade relations as Brock goes’, Financial Post, 30 March 1985.Google Scholar
  11. 19.
    Ross Laver et al., ‘Free talk’, Maclean’s, 98 (37), 16 September 1985.Google Scholar
  12. 20.
    Free trade without debate’, editorial, Toronto Star, 27 September 1985.Google Scholar
  13. 21.
    C. D. Howe Institute, ‘Closing a trade deal: the provinces’ role’, Commentary, 11 August 1986, p. 5.Google Scholar
  14. 22.
    D. Stewart-Patterson, ‘Manitoba wants exclusions on trade talks with US’, Globe and Mail, 28 October 1985.Google Scholar
  15. 23.
    D. Crane, ‘How free trade has the West thinking twice’, Toronto Star, 3 August 1985.Google Scholar
  16. 24.
    M. Cohen, ‘Some important lessons for Canadian, US negotiators’, The Citizen, Ottawa, 16 January 1986.Google Scholar
  17. 26.
    R. Howard, ‘Barriers between provinces obstacles in free trade talks’, Globe and Mail, 17 February 1986.Google Scholar
  18. 59.
    Clyde H. Farnsworth, ‘House backs accord with Canada’, New York Times, 10 August 1988.Google Scholar
  19. 63.
    Interview, Office of the United States Trade Representative, Washington, DC, September 1989.Google Scholar
  20. 66.
    William Walker, ‘US protectionists distorting trade figures, Peterson says’, Toronto Star, 29 July 1988.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Brian Hocking 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brian Hocking
    • 1
  1. 1.Coventry UniversityUK

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