Advertisement

The Dynamics of Empire and Expansion

  • Ronald Hyam
Part of the Cambridge Commonwealth Series book series

Abstract

There used to be a theory that territories came under the British flag as a result of the export of surplus capital. It would be much truer to say that the driving force behind empire-building was rather the export of surplus energy: that the expansion of Britain was the overspill of a restless people. The explorer Sir Samuel Baker wrote in 1855:1

Englishmen … are naturally endowed with a spirit of adventure. There is in the hearts of all a germ of freedom which longs to break through the barriers that confine us to our own shores; and as the newborn wildfowl takes to water from its deserted egg-shell, so we wander over the world when launched on our own resources.

This innate spirit of action is the mainspring of the power of England. Go where you will, from north to south and from east to west, you meet an Englishman.

Keywords

Secret Society British Empire White Mask Sexual Opportunity Grand Master 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    S.W. Baker, Eight Years in Ceylon (1855), xii.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    H. Merivale, Lectures on Colonies and Colonisation (1841, 1861).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    O. Rutter (ed.), Rajah Brooke and Baroness Burdett-Coutts: Consisting of the Letters of (1935), 23.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    T. Walrond (ed.), Letters and Journals of the Eighth Earl of Elgin (1872), 199, 250, 275.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    A. Ramm, Sir Robert Morier 1876–93 (1973), 64, 127–9.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    G. Dutton, Hero as Murderer: Life of Edward John Eyre, Australian Explorer and Governor of Jamaica 1815–1901 (1967), 18;Google Scholar
  7. E. Thompson, The Life of Charles Lord Metcalfe (1937), 123–34.Google Scholar
  8. 7.
    C. Headlam, The Milner Papers, Vol. II, 446–8;Google Scholar
  9. F. Gross, Rhodes of Africa (1956), 216.Google Scholar
  10. 8.
    W. Denison, Varieties of Vice-Regal Life, (1870), Vol. I, 18.Google Scholar
  11. 9.
    M. Cowling, ‘Lytton, the cabinet and the Russians 1878’, EHR, 76 (1961), 59–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 10.
    W.D. McIntyre, The Imperial Frontier in the Tropics 1865–75 (1967), 3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 11.
    J.S. Galbraith, ‘“Turbulent frontier” as a factor in British expansion’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 2 (1959/60).Google Scholar
  14. 12.
    W.G. Beasley, Great Britain and the Opening of Japan 1834–58 (1951).Google Scholar
  15. 13.
    Cromer Papers FO 633/7, 129, Lansdowne to Cromer, 3 April 1905.Google Scholar
  16. 14.
    Ramm, Sir Robert Morier, 123.Google Scholar
  17. 15.
    R.E. Robinson, ‘Non-European foundations of European expansion’, in R. Owen and R. Sutcliffe (eds), Studies in the Theory of Imperialism (1972), ch. 5;Google Scholar
  18. D.K. Fieldhouse, Economics and Empire 1830–1914 (1973).Google Scholar
  19. 16.
    J. Benyon, Proconsul and Paramountcy in South Africa: The High Commission, British Supremacy and the Sub-continent 1806–1910 (Natal, 1980), 3–4, 333, 341–2.Google Scholar
  20. 17.
    W.S. Churchill, The River War (1902 edn), 173.Google Scholar
  21. 18.
    For Satow see D.C.M. Platt, ‘British diplomacy in Latin America’, Inter-American Economic Affairs, 21 (1967), 41.Google Scholar
  22. 19.
    R.I. Rotberg (with M.F. Shore), The Founder: Cecil Rhodes and the Pursuit of Power (1988), 362.Google Scholar
  23. 20.
    Ibid., 655.Google Scholar
  24. 21.
    R. Hyam, Empire and Sexuality: The British Experience (1990, 1991).Google Scholar
  25. See also A.L. Stoler, ‘Making empire respectable: the politics of race and sexual morality in 20th century colonial cultures’, American Ethnologist, 16 (1989), 634–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 22.
    Earl of Cromer, Political and Literary Essays, 3rd series (1916), 13–14.Google Scholar
  27. 23.
    H. Robinson, Speeches (1879), quoted in K.O. Hall, ‘Sir Hercules Robinson and South Africa 1881–89’ (PhD, Kingston, Ontario, 1971), 34, 92.Google Scholar
  28. 24.
    A. Grimble, A Pattern of Islands (1952), 52.Google Scholar
  29. 25.
    J.A. Mangan, The Games Ethic and Imperialism: Aspects of the Diffusion of an Ideal (1986), 34–5.Google Scholar
  30. 26.
    S. Leslie, Studies in Sublime Failure (1932), 256.Google Scholar
  31. 27.
    D. Wright (ed.), Gould’s History of Freemasonry [1932], Vols III and V;Google Scholar
  32. T.D. Williams (ed.), Secret Societies in Ireland (1973), esp. T. de Vere White, ‘The freemasons’, 46–57;Google Scholar
  33. AJ. Dewar, The Unlocked Secret: Freemasonry Examined(1966);Google Scholar
  34. Grand Lodge 1717–1967 (1967, foreword by A.S. Frere); Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11 (11th edn, 1910/11), 84–5, ‘Freemasonry’Google Scholar
  35. see also T.R. Reese, History of the Royal Commonwealth Society 1868–1968 ( 1968), 105–6, 138,Google Scholar
  36. and E.A. Walker, Lord de Villiers and His Times: South Africa 1842–1914 (1923), 39–43.Google Scholar
  37. 28.
    J.M. Roberts, The Mythology of Secret Societies (1972), 1–57.Google Scholar
  38. 29.
    Private letters to the author from the Earl of Elgin, 4 January 1973, 19 September and 29 October 1974, quoted with permission.Google Scholar
  39. 30.
    A.T. Wirgman, Storm and Sunshine in South Africa, with Some Personal and Historical Reminiscences (1922), 187.Google Scholar
  40. 31.
    A. Hardinge, Life of H.H. Molyneux, 4th Earl of Carnarvon 1831–90 (1925), Vol. I, 222–9.Google Scholar
  41. 32.
    The Spectator, 5 March 1898, 33.Google Scholar
  42. 33.
    ‘George Orwell’, Burmese Days (1934).Google Scholar
  43. 34.
    Goldwin Smith, Reminiscences (ed. A. Haultain, 1910), 69.Google Scholar
  44. 35.
    L. Woolf, Growing: An Autobiography of the Years 1904–11 (1961), 135.Google Scholar
  45. 36.
    S. Orwell and I. Angus (eds), The Collected Essays, Journalism and Letters of George Orwell (1968), Vol. I, 239, 403.Google Scholar
  46. 37.
    Ibid., Vol. I, 388, 393; Vol. III, 262.Google Scholar
  47. 38.
    M. Perham (ed.), The Diaries of Lord Lugard [East Africa 1889–92] (1954), Vol. I, 193; Vol. II, 116–18; Vol. III, 103, 178, 248, 361.Google Scholar
  48. 39.
    A. Grimble, Return to the Islands (1957), 153, 212.Google Scholar
  49. 40.
    J. Nehru, An Autobiography (1936), 417.Google Scholar
  50. 41.
    Morley-Minto Papers, D 573/9/50 and 11/34 (18 February 1907) and 16/77, and 20/31.Google Scholar
  51. 42.
    D.A. Low, Lion Rampant: Essays on the Study of British Imperialism (1973), 22.Google Scholar
  52. 43.
    Denison, Varieties of Vice-Regal Life, Vol. II, 51, 155, 287, 403.Google Scholar
  53. 44.
    H.A.C. Cairns, Prelude to Imperialism: British Reactions to Central African Society 1840–90 (1965), 38, 78.Google Scholar
  54. 45.
    Grimble, Return to the Islands, 211–15.Google Scholar
  55. 46.
    G.C. Moore Smith (ed.), The Autobiography of Lt.-Gen. Sir Harry Smith (1901), Vol. II, 231.Google Scholar
  56. 47.
    Perham (ed.), Diaries of Lord Lugard, Vol. II, 116–18.Google Scholar
  57. 48.
    T. Hughes, Tom Brown’s Schooldays (1857), Part 2, ch. viii.Google Scholar
  58. 49.
    F. Fanon, Peau noire, masques blancs (1952).Google Scholar
  59. 50.
    G. Shepperson and T. Price, Independent African: Chilembwe and the Nyasaland Native Rising 1915 (1958);Google Scholar
  60. R.I. Rotberg and A. Mazrui (eds), Protest and Power in Black Africa (1970), 350–73;Google Scholar
  61. R.I. Rotberg, Rise of Nationalism in Central Africa 1873–1964 (1966), 76–92.Google Scholar
  62. 51.
    Magdalene College Archives, F/WRI, diary of Dean Inge, Vol. 25.Google Scholar
  63. 52.
    Morley-Minto Papers D 573/2, Morley to Minto 12 August 1907, and 3/9, 8 January 1908.Google Scholar
  64. 53.
    R. Hyam, A History of Isleworth Grammar School (1969), 52;Google Scholar
  65. H.U. Willink, ‘As I remember’, unpublished memoir (L968), Churchill College Archive Centre, 19.Google Scholar
  66. 54.
    T.E.B. Howarth, Cambridge Between Two Wars (1978), 16.Google Scholar
  67. 55.
    F.A. Simpson, A Sermon Preached in Great St Mary’s Church at the Commemoration of Benefactors, 2 November 1932 ( Cambridge Review, November 1932, repr. 9 October 1954 as a separate pamphlet and again in 1972).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Ronald Hyam 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ronald Hyam
    • 1
  1. 1.Magdalene CollegeCambridgeUK

Personalised recommendations