In the last decade of the eighteenth century, the Javanese kingdoms of Surakarta and Yogyakarta faced many problems, but they were more independent of European pressure than any Javanese state since the late seventeenth century. The aristocratic elite were still in control, and in Yogyakarta in particular a substantial restoration of the state had been accomplished. Soon, however, internal conflicts would bring crisis to Yogyakarta, just at a time when the European threat was suddenly renewed. The result would be the utter destruction of Javanese independence within less than forty years of the death of Haměngkubuwana I, and the beginning of the truly colonial period of Javanese history.
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