The Developed-Country Impact on Product Standards in the Third World

  • Jeffrey James


Legal minimum standards below which products may not be marketed are widely used in developed countries. There is a commonly held presumption that these standards — almost all of which are imposed for goods endangering the health and safety of consumers — should also be adopted by the developing countries. In both groups of countries, for example, there is legislation prohibiting the marketing of drugs which are not approved in the United States. The World Health Organization formulates international standards for drinking water and drugs,1 while consumer groups urge ‘that the United States support the development of international product safety standards’2 and express indignation at the very idea that drugs which do not meet developed-country standards should be available in developing countries.3


Toxicity Maize Europe Income Aspirin 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Colantoni, C, Davis, O. and Swaminuthan, M. (1976). ‘Imperfect Consumers and Welfare Comparisons of Policies Concerning Information and Regulation’, Bell Journal of Economics, Vol. 7, Autumn.Google Scholar
  2. DiRaddo, J. and Wardell, W.M. (1979). ‘Innovation and Availability in the United States of Drugs for Tropical Diseases’, in US National Academy of Sciences, Pharmaceuticals for Developing Countries. Google Scholar
  3. Eckstein, O. (1961). ‘A Survey of the Theory of Public Expenditure Criteria’, in Buchanan, J.M. (ed.), Public Finances: Needs, Sources and Utilization, Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Feachem, R. (1980). ‘Bacterial Standards for Drinking Water Quality in Developing Countries’, The Lancet, August 2.Google Scholar
  5. Feachem, R., McGarry, M. and Mara, D. (1977). Water, Wastes and Health in Hot Climates, Wiley.Google Scholar
  6. Festinger, L. (1957). A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Friedman, M. and Friedman, R. (1980). Free to Choose, Secker & Warburg.Google Scholar
  8. Happold, F.H. (1967). Medicine at Risk: The Higher Price of Cheap Drugs, Queen Anne Press.Google Scholar
  9. Hardoy, J. and Satterthwaite, D. (1990). ‘New Partnerships for Healthy Cities’, in Cairncross, S., Hardoy, J. and Satterthwaite, D. (eds), The Poor Die Young: Housing and Health in Third World Cities, Earthscan.Google Scholar
  10. James, B.G. (1977). The Future of the Multinational Pharmaceutical Industry to 1990, Associated Business Programmes.Google Scholar
  11. Jelliffe, D.B. (1972). “Commerciogenic Malnutrition’, Nutrition Reviews, Sept.Google Scholar
  12. Jones-Lee, M.W. (1976). The Value of Life: An Economic Analysis, Martin Robertson.Google Scholar
  13. Kaplinsky, R. (1990). The Economies of Small, IT Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kennedy, D. (1979) ‘Food and Drug Administration and Pharmaceuticals for Developing Countries’, in US National Academy of Sciences, Pharmaceuticals for Developing Countries, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  15. Konner, M. (1990). Why the Reckless Survive and Other Secrets of Human Nature, Viking.Google Scholar
  16. Nath, S.K. (1969). A Reappraisal of Welfare Economics, Augustus M. Kellev.Google Scholar
  17. Nelson, N. (1979). ‘How Women and Men Get By: The Sexual Division of Labour in the Informal Sector of a Nairobi Squatter Settlement’, in Bromley, R. and Gerry, C. (eds), Casual Work and Poverty in Third World Cities, Wiley.Google Scholar
  18. Penz, P. (1986). Consumer Sovereignty and Human Interests, Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Rybczynski, W., Polprasert, C. and McGarry, M. (1982). Appropriate Technologyfor Water Supply and Sanitation: Low-Cost Technology Options for Sanitation, A State-of-the-Art Review and Annotated Bibliography, The World Bank, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  20. Scitovsky, T. (1976). The Joyless Economy: An Inquiry into Human Satisfaction and Consumer Dissatisfaction, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Silverman, M. (1976). The Drugging of the Americas, University of California Press.Google Scholar
  22. Sinnatamby, G. (1990). ‘Low Cost Sanitation’, in Cairncross, S., Hardoy, J. and Satterthwaite, D. (eds), The Poor Die Young: Housing and Health in Third World Cities, Earthscan.Google Scholar
  23. Spence, R. (1978). Appropriate Technologies for Small-Scale Production of Cement and Cementitious Materials, UNIDO Forum on Appropriate Industrial Technology, New Delhi, Nov. 20–25.Google Scholar
  24. Temple, F. and Temple, N. (1980). ‘The Politics of Public Housing in Nairobi’, in Grindle, M. (ed.), Politics and Policy Implementation in the Third World, Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Turner, J.F.C. (1976). Housing By People: Towards Autonomy in Building Environments, Marion Boyars.Google Scholar
  26. World Health Organization (1971). International Standards for Drinking Water, 3rd edn.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Jeffrey James 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeffrey James
    • 1
  1. 1.Tilburg UniversityThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations