The Railway Age

  • D. Aldcroft
Chapter

Abstract

At the beginning of the nineteenth century Europeans were still using the basic forms of transport provided by past civilisations. For the most part locomotion depended upon ‘human muscle, the beasts of burden, and the wind-filled sail’. In many countries large areas remained unexplored, although Britain, had fairly well developed surface communications. The main forms of transportation consisted of river and canal navigation, coastal shipping and horse-drawn transport, together with more primitive forms of conveyance.

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References and Further Reading

  1. (1).
    D. H. Aldcroft, ‘Urban transport problems in historical perspective’, in A. Slaven and D. H. Aldcroft (eds), Business, Banking and Urban History: Essays in Honour of S. G. Checkland (London, 1982).Google Scholar
  2. (2).
    P. S. Bagwell and J. Armstrong, ‘Coastal shipping’, in M. J. Freeman and D. H. Aldcroft (eds), Transport in Victorian Britain (Manchester, 1988).Google Scholar
  3. (3).
    R. W. Fogel, ‘Railroads as an Analogy to the Space Effort: Some Economic Aspects’, Economic Journal, LXXVI (1966).Google Scholar
  4. (4).
    T. R. Gourvish, ‘Railways 1830–70: the formative years’, in Freeman and Aldcroft (eds); see [2] above (1988).Google Scholar
  5. (5).
    G. Hawke, Railways and Economic Growth in England and Wales 1840–1870 (Oxford, 1970).Google Scholar
  6. (6).
    J. R. Kellett, The Impact of Railways on Victorian Cities (London, 1969).Google Scholar
  7. (7).
    P. O’Brien (ed.), Railways and the Economic Development of Western Europe (London, 1983).Google Scholar
  8. (8).
    E. Pawson, Transport and the Economy: the turnpike roads of eighteenth century Britain (London, 1977).Google Scholar
  9. (9).
    J. Simmons, The Railway in Town and Country, 1830–1914 (Newton Abbot, 1986).Google Scholar
  10. (10).
    S. P. Ville, Transport and the Development of the European Economy, 1750–1918 (London, 1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. (11).
    T. B. Gourvish Railways and the British Economy, 1830–1914 (London, 1983).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ReFRESH 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Aldcroft

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