The Marketing Environment

  • Michael J. Baker


The issues to be addressed in Chapter 6 include:
  1. 1

    The view that the external environment is the ultimate constraint upon the courses of action open to a firm.

  2. 2

    The influence of demographic factors on primary demand.

  3. 3

    The role of other forces — social, cultural, economic, political, technological, etc. — in modifying and shaping actual demand and consumption patterns.

  4. 4

    The pattern of economic activity over time and the existence of underlying cycles and trends.

  5. 5

    The nature of competition and the importance of non-price factors in developing marketing strategies.

  6. 6

    The implications of environmental change for marketing practice.



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Notes and References

  1. 1.
    Chapter 2 in Michael J. Baker, Marketing (5th edn, 1991) provides a broad overview of this topic.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    John Diffenbach, ‘Corporate Environmental Analysis in Large U.S. Corporations’, Long Range Planning, 16(3) (1983) pp. 107–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    K. Albrecht, Stress and the Manager (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1979).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Peter F. Drucker, The Practice of Management (London: Heinemann, 1968).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. K. Galbraith, The Affluent Society (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1958).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Marshall MaCluhan, Understanding Media (London: Kegan Paul, 1964).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Alvin Toffler, Future Shock (London: The Bodley Head, 1970).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    See Chapter 8.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    T. Levitt, ‘Marketing Myopia’, Harvard Business Review (July-August 1960).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gene Bylinsky, ‘Technology in the Year 2000’, Fortune (18 July 1988).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    The Long Wave in Economic Life (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1983).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    W. W. Rostow, The Process of Economic Growth (New York: W. W. Norton, 1962) 2nd edn.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    The discussion in this section draws heavily on the work of my former student Dr Hanaa Said.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. M. Clark, Competition as a Dynamic Process (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1961).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Philip Kotler, Marketing Management (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1972) 2nd edn.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. Udell, Successful Marketing Strategies in American Industries (Madison, Wise.: Mirrer Publishers, 1972).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Joan Robinson, The Economics of Imperfect Competition (London: Macmillan, 1933).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    E. J. Chamberlin, The Theory of Monopolistic Competition (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1933).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    F. Knight, Ethics of Competition (London: George Allen 8c Unwin, 1936) 2nd edn.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    G. Stigler, Five Lectures on Economic Problems (London: Longman, 1948).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    F. Machlup, The Economics of Sellers’ Competition (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1953).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    N. Borden, ‘The Concept of the Marketing Mix’, in G. Schwartz (ed.), Science in Marketing (New York: Wiley, 1965).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. Udell, ‘How Important is Price in Competitive Strategy’, Journal of Marketing (January 1964).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    This topic is the subject of a full chapter in my introductory text Marketing: An Introductory Text (London: Macmillan, 1985) 4th edn and so will be given only cursory treatment here.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    K. K. Cox, ‘Marketing in the 1980s: back to basics’, Business, 30 (1980) pp. 19–23.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Francis J. Aguilar, Scanning the Business Environment (New York: Macmillan, 1967).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    ‘The Theory and Practice of Marketing Planning for Industrial Goods in International Markets’, Ph.D. dissertation Cranfield (1982). Published as Marketing Plans (London: Heinemann, 1984).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Michael J. Baker 1992

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  • Michael J. Baker

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