The Land and the People in History

  • Anthony Hyman

Abstract

It is the geographical situation more than any other factor which has ensured Afghanistan’s continuing importance in Asian history, for it lies across the Asian land routes like a mountainous crossroads — picturesquely described as a ‘roundabout of the Ancient World’ (Arnold Toynbee). Neither the land nor its peoples can be understood without reference to the three great Asian regions against each of which Afghanistan has its borders; related to each and yet distinct — central, south and west Asia; that is, the vast steppelands of central Asia, the subcontinent of India and the Middle East.

Keywords

Sugar Migration Europe Income Turkey 

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Notes

  1. 1.
    Olaf Caroe, The Pathans (1985) p. 25.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    H. K. Kakar, Government and Society in Afghanistan (Austin, USA, 1979) for a full study of Amir Abdur Rahman’s reign.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Major-General Sir H. Rawlinson, England and Russia in the East (1875, new edition 1970) p. 355.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    See further J. Spain, The Way of the Pathan (1962).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hans Kohn, The idea of Nationalism (1944), E. Kedourie, Nationalism (1960) and R. Emerson, From empire to nation (USA, 1960), with bibliographies.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Among sources consulted are J. Anderson and R. Strand (eds), Ethnic processes and intergroup relations in contemporary Afghanistan (New York, 1978) and F. Barth, ‘Pathan Identity and its maintenance’, in F. Barth (ed.), Ethnic groups and boundaries (1970).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    R. Canfield, Faction and conversion in a plural society (Michigan, USA, 1973) pp. 117–19.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Eugene Schuyler, Turkistan (1877) in G. Wheeler’s revised edition (1966) p. 87.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Xavier de Planhol, The world of Islam (Cornell, USA, 1970) p. 82.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    I rely here on published material, but also private information. Compare L. Dupree, Afghanistan (1973) ch. 10 for settlement patterns.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Victor Segesvary, Afghanistan among the least developed of developing countries, mimeo. report, UNDP office, Kabul, dated June 1977.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    A stimulating review by Dr Neville Goodman, ‘Health services in Afghanistan, Iran and Turkey’, in Royal Society of Asia Journal (RSAJ), vol. LIII (June 1966).Google Scholar
  13. 14.
    J. Baljon, in A. J. Arberry (ed.), Religion in the Middle East, vol. II (1969).Google Scholar
  14. 15.
    Fazlur Rahman, Islam, 1966, p. 158.Google Scholar
  15. 17.
    Reliable statistics are all the more difficult to obtain with the civil war upsetting patterns, by bombings and refugee problems. A useful German study attempts this, though — K-H. Rudersdorf, Afghanistan-eine Sowjetrepublik? (Rowohlt, 1980).Google Scholar
  16. 20.
    L. Dupree, The new republic of Afghanistan, special paper of ACAS, USA, spring 1976.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Anthony Hyman 1992

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  • Anthony Hyman

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