The principal ergonomic risk factors associated with musculoskeletal problems in production line workers (and other people who perform repetitive manipulative tasks) are: working posture, repetition rate, force application and wrist position. The worst problems are often associated with repeated forceful gripping and turning actions executed with the wrist in a deviated position. The turning action may involve various wrist and forearm movements: flexion/extension, ulnar/radial deviation, pronation/supination, or some combination of these. Gripping actions alone are less likely to cause problems—especially if the wrist is in a neutral position (see Chapter 4).
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