• Francine D. Blau
Part of the The New Palgrave book series (NPA)


The term gender has traditionally referred, as has sex, to the biological differences between men and women. More recently a movement has arisen both in social science writings and in public discourse to expand this definition to encompass also the distinctions which society has erected on this biological base, and further to use the word gender in preference to sex to refer to this broader definition. In this essay, we describe the relationship of this expanded concept of gender to economic theory.


Human Capital Labour Supply Labour Force Participation Household Production Statistical Discrimination 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aigner, D. and Cain, G. 1977. Statistical theories of discrimination in labour markets. Industrial and Labor Relations Review 30(2), January, 175–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arrow, K. 1973. The theory of discrimination. In Discrimination in Labor Markets, ed. O. Ashenfelter and A. Rees, Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Arrow, K. 1976. Economic dimensions of occupational segregation: comment I. Signs 1(3), Part II, 233–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Becker, G. 1957. The Economics of Discrimination. 2nd edn, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971.Google Scholar
  5. Becker, G. 1965. A theory of the allocation of time. Economic Journal 75, September, 493–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Becker, G. 1981. A Treatise on the Family. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Becker, G. 1985. Human capital, effort, and the sexual division of labor. Journal of Labor Economics 3(1), January, 533–58.Google Scholar
  8. Bergmann, B. 1974. Occupational segregation, wages and profits when employers discriminate by race or sex. Eastern Economic Journal 1, April/July, 103–10.Google Scholar
  9. Bergmann, B. and Darity, W., Jr. 1981. Social relations in the workplace and employer discrimination. In Proceedings of the Thirty-Third Annual Meeting of the Industrial Relations Research Association. ed. B.D. Dennis, New York: Industrial Relations Research Association, 155–62.Google Scholar
  10. Blau, F. 1984. Discrimination against women: theory and evidence. In Labor Economics: Modern Views, ed. W. Darity, Boston: Kluwer-Nijhoff Publishing.Google Scholar
  11. Blau, F. and Ferber, M. 1986. The Economics of Women, Men, and Work. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  12. Brown, C. 1984. Consumption norms, work roles, and economic growth. Paper presented at the conference on Gender in the Workplace, Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, November.Google Scholar
  13. Doeringer, P. and Piore, M. 1971. Internal Labor Markets and Manpower Analysis. Lexington, Mass.: D.C. Heath and Co.Google Scholar
  14. Edgeworth, F. 1922. Equal pay to men and women for equal work. Economic Journal 32, December, 431–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Engels, F. 1884. The Origin of the Family, Private Property and The State. New York: International Publishers, 1972.Google Scholar
  16. Fawcett, M.G. 1918. Equal pay for equal work. Economic Journal 28, March, 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ferber, M. and Birnbaum, B. 1977. The ‘new home economics’: retrospects and prospects., Journal of Consumer Research 4(1), June, 19–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ferber, M. and Lowry, H. 1976. The sex differential in earnings: a reappraisal. Industrial and Labor Relations Review 29(3), April, 377–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gilman, C. 1898. Women and Economics: a study of the economic relation between men and women as a factor of social evolution. New York: Harper & Row, 1966.Google Scholar
  20. Hartmann, H. 1976. Capitalism, patriarchy and job segregation by sex. Signs 1(3), Part II, 137–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Madden, J. 1973. The Economics of Sex Discrimination. Lexington, Mass.: D.C. Heath and Co.Google Scholar
  22. Marx, K. 1867. Capital: A Critique of Political Economy, Vol. I. New York: International Publishers, 1967.Google Scholar
  23. Mill, J.S. 1869. The Subjection of Women. 4th edn, London: Longmans, Green, Reader & Dyer, 1878; New York: Stokes, 1911.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mincer, J. 1962. Labor force participation of married women. In Aspects of Labor Economics National Bureau of Economic Research, Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Mincer, J. and Polachek, S. 1974. Family investments in human capital: earnings of women. Journal of Political Economy 82(2), Part II, S76 - S108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Phelps, E. 1972. The statistical theory of racism and sexism. American Economic Review 62(4), September, 659–61.Google Scholar
  27. Piore, M. 1971. The dual labor market: theory and implications. In Problems in Political Economy: an urban perspective, ed. D. Gordon, Lexington, Mass.: D.C. Heath and Co.Google Scholar
  28. Polachek, S. 1981. Occupational self-selection: a human capital approach to sex differences in occupational structure. Review of Economics and Statistics 63(1), February, 60–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Treiman, D. and Hartmann, H. (eds) 1981. Women, Work, and Wages: equal pay for jobs of equal value. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  30. Webb, B. 1919. The Wages of Men and Women: should they be equal? London: Fabian Bookshop.Google Scholar
  31. Weiss, Y. and Gronau, R. 1981. Expected interruptions in labour force participation and sex-related differences in earnings growth. Review of Economic Studies 48(4), October, 607–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francine D. Blau

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations