Victims, Crime Prevention and Social Control

  • Sandra Walklate
Part of the Explorations in Sociology book series (EIS)


Clarke (1987) suggests that the 1950s and 1960s were decades in which the main thrust of criminal justice policy focused on how to treat the offender rather than how to protect the community from crime. This period is also frequently viewed as a time in which, whilst individuals may have suffered criminal victimisation, there appears to have been little publicly expressed fear of crime. Interpreting this historical period in this way may, or may not, be accurate, but it does reflect a fashionable process in the policy arena: that of invoking images of the past to inform policy directions of the present. One such image, subsequently developed by Clarke (1987), has been that of the community. This chapter will be concerned to examine the extent to which initiatives in crime prevention presume a certain image of the community, and particularly with the way in which that image makes certain assumptions about the victim of crime. An understanding of these images will be offered by reference to the processes of social control and the political possibilities of penetrating those processes.


Domestic Violence Social Control Crime Prevention Crime Reduction Criminal Victimisation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. BENNETT, T. (1987) An Evaluation of Two Neighbourhood Watch Schemes in London, Executive Summary, Final Report to the Home Office Research and Planning Unit, Cambridge: Institute of Criminology.Google Scholar
  2. BENNETT, T. and WRIGHT, R. (1984) Burglars on Burglary, Aldershot: Gower.Google Scholar
  3. BENNION, C., DAVIES, A., HESSE, B., JOSHUA, L., McGLOIN P., MUNN, C. and TESTER, S. (1985) Neighbourhood Watch: The Eyes and Ears of Urban Policing? Occasional Papers in Sociology and Social Policy no. 6, University of Surrey.Google Scholar
  4. BLAGG, H. (1985) ‘Reparation and Justice for Juveniles’, British Journal of Criminology, vol. 25, pp. 267–79.Google Scholar
  5. BLAGG, H., PEARSON, G., SAMPSON, A., SMITH, D. and STUBBS, P. (1988) ‘Inter-Agency Co-ordination: Rhetoric and Reality’, in T. Hope and M. Shaw (eds), Communities and Crime Reduction, Landon: HMSO.Google Scholar
  6. BOTTOMS, A. E. (1983) ‘Neglected Features of Contemporary Penal Systems’, in D. Garland and P. Young (eds), The Power to Punish, London: Heinemann, pp. 166–202.Google Scholar
  7. BOX, S. (1987) Recession Crime and Punishment, London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. BRIGHT, J. (1987) ‘Community Safety, Crime Prevention and Local Authority’, in P. Willmott (ed.), Policing and the Community, Policy Studies Institute Discussion Paper 16, London: PSI, pp. 45–53.Google Scholar
  9. CARSON, W. G. (1982) The Other Price of Britain’s Oil, Oxford: Mart in Robertson.Google Scholar
  10. CLARKE, M. J. (1987) ‘Citizenship, Community and the Management of Crime’, British journal of Criminology, 27, pp. 384–400.Google Scholar
  11. COHEN, S. (1985) Visions of Social Control, Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  12. COLEMAN, A. (1985) Utopia on Trial, London: Hilary Shipman.Google Scholar
  13. CORRIGAN, P., JONES T. and YOUNG, J. (1989) ‘Rights and Obligations’, New Socialist, February—March, pp. 16–17.Google Scholar
  14. DONNISON, H., SKOLA, J. and THOMAS, P. (1986) Neighbourhood Watch: Policing the People, London: The Libertarian Research and Education Trust.Google Scholar
  15. ELIAS, R. (1986) The Politics of Victimization, Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. FORRESTER, D., CHATTERTON, M. and PEASE, K. (1988) The Kirkholt Burglary Prevention Project, Rochdale, Crime Prevention Unit Paper 13, London: HMSO.Google Scholar
  17. HOPE, T. (1988) ‘Support for Neighbourhood Watch: A British Crime Survey Analysis’, in T. Hope and M. Shaw (eds), Communities and Crime Prevention, London: HMSO, pp. 146–63.Google Scholar
  18. HOPE, T. and SHAW, M. (1988) ‘Community Approaches to Reducing Crime, in T’. Hope and M. Shaw (cds), Communities and Crime Reduction, London: HMSO, pp. 1–29.Google Scholar
  19. HOUGH, M. and MAYHEW, P. (1983) The British Crime Survey: First Report, Home Office Research Study no. 76, London: HMSO.Google Scholar
  20. HOUGH, M. and MAYHEW, P. (1985) Taking Account of Crime: Key Findings from the Second British Crime Survey, Home Office Research Study no. 85, London: HMSO.Google Scholar
  21. HOUGH, M. and MO, J. (1986) If At First You Don’t Succeed’, Honte Office Research Bulletin 21, pp. 10–13.Google Scholar
  22. JEFFERSON, T., McLAUGHLIN, E. and ROBERTSON, L. (1988) ‘Monitoring the Monitors: Accountability, Democracy and Policewatching in Britain’, Contemporary Crises, 12, pp. 91–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. JEFFREYS, S. and RADFORD, J. (1984) ‘Contributory Negligence or Being a Woman? The Car Rapist Case’, in P. Scraton and P. Gordon (eds), Causes for Concern, Harmondsworth: Penguin, pp. 154–83.Google Scholar
  24. JONES, T., MACLEAN, B. and YOUNG, J. (1986) The Islington Crime Survey, Aldershot: Gower.Google Scholar
  25. KINSEY, R. (1984) Merseyside Crime Survey: First Report, Liverpool: Merseyside County Council.Google Scholar
  26. KINSEY, R., LEA, J. and YOUNG, J. (1986) Losing the Fight Against Crime, Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  27. LAUNEY, G. (1985) ‘Bringing Victims and Offenders Together: A Comparison of Two Models’, Howard journal of Criminal justice, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 200–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. LEA, J. (1987) ‘Left Realism: A Defence’, Contemporary Crises, 11, pp. 357–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. LEE, J. A. (1981) ‘Some Structural Aspects of Police Deviance in Relations with Minority Groups’, in C. Shearing (ed.), Organizational Police Deviance, Toronto: Butterworth, pp. 49–82.Google Scholar
  30. LEWIS, D. A. and SALEM, G. (1986) Fear of Crime: Incivility and the Production of a Social Problem, New Brunswick NJ.: Transaction.Google Scholar
  31. MARSHALL, T. and WALPOLE, M. (1985) Bringing People Together: Mediation and Reparation Projects in Great Britain, Home Office Research and Planning Unit Paper 33, London: HMSO.Google Scholar
  32. MATTHEWS, R. (1987) ‘Taking Realist Criminology Seriously’, Contemporary Crises, 11, pp. 371–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. MAWBY, R. I. and GILL, M. (1987) Crinue Victims: Needs Services and the Voluntary Sector, London: Tavistock.Google Scholar
  34. MIERS, D. (1978) Responses to Victimization, Abingdon: Professional BooksGoogle Scholar
  35. REISS, A. (1986) ‘Official Statistics and Survey Statistics’, in E. A. Fattah (ed.), From Crime Policy to Victim Policy, London: Macmillan, pp. 53–79.Google Scholar
  36. ROCK, P. (1988) ‘Crime Reduction Initiatives on Problem Estates’, in T. Hope and M. Shaw (eds), Communities and Crime Reduction, London: HMSO, pp. 99–115.Google Scholar
  37. ROSENBAUM, D. P. (1988) ‘A Critical Eye on Neighbourhood Watch: Does It Reduce Crime and Fear?’, in T. Hope and M. Shaw (eds), Communities and Crime Reduction, London: HMSO, pp. 126–45.Google Scholar
  38. SAMPSON, A., STUBBS, P., SMITH, D., PEARSON, G. and BLAGG, H. (1988) ‘Crime Localities and the Multi-Agency Approach’, British Journal of Criminology, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 478–93.Google Scholar
  39. SCULL, A. (1977) Decarceration: Community Treatment and the Deviant — A Radical View, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  40. SHAPLAND, J. (1988) ‘Policing with the Public’, in T. Hope and M. Shaw (eds), Communities and Crime Reduction, London: HMSO, pp. 116–25.Google Scholar
  41. SMITH, S. J. (1986) Crime, Space and Society, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  42. WALKLATE, S. (1989) Victimology: Victims and the Criminal justice Process, London: Unw in Hyman.Google Scholar
  43. WILLMOTT, P. (1987) Introduction’, in P. Willmott (ed.), Policing and the Community, London: PSI, pp. 1–7.Google Scholar
  44. WORRALL, A. and PEASE, K. (1986) ‘Personal Crime Against Women’, Howard Journal of Criminal justice, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 118–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. YOUNG, J. (1988) ‘Radical Criminology in Britain: The Emergence of a Competing Paradigm’, British journal of Criminology, vol. 28, pp. 159–83.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© British Sociological Association 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sandra Walklate

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations