Deforestation has become a familiar term in the latter half of the 1980s, and many people react as if it were a new discovery. In fact it has been a problem since the origin of agriculture when man began to clear the forests to plant crops. This in turn enabled him to enlarge the population size and therefore, the tendency to deforest has continued and increased. Rather than turn straight to the forests of Brazil or Malaysia, we need to begin nearer to home and realize that when the Romans reached Britain it was largely a forested island, and that the scenery which we think of as rural today with its farmland, hedges and downs, is artificial. Hannibal did not have to travel to Central or Southern Africa to obtain elephants for his famous attempt to cross the Alps because these animals roamed the forested areas of North Africa just across the Mediterranean Sea from Italy. Israel is a semi-desert country because it was deforested in Biblical times. The result of forest loss in the Middle East and North Africa is obvious, the increase of desert.
KeywordsBiomass Sugar Burning Clay Dioxide
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 2.J.-P. Lanly, ‘Tropical forest resources’, FAO Forestry Paper 30 (Rome, 1982).Google Scholar
- 3.J.-P. Malingreau and C.J. Tucker, ‘Large-scale deforestation in the Southeastern Amazon Basin of Brazil’, Ambio, 17 (1988) pp. 49–55.Google Scholar
- 4.J.-P. Malingreau and C.J. Tucker, ‘The contribution of AVHRR data for measuring and understanding global processes: large-scale deforestation in the Amazon Basin’, International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, (Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1987), pp. 443–8.Google Scholar
- 7.G.T. Prance, W.A. Rodrigues and M.F. da Silva, ‘Inventrio florestal de um hectare de mata de terra Firme km 30 da Estrada Manaus-Itacoatiara’, Acta Amazonica, 6 (1976) pp. 9–35.Google Scholar
- 9.T.L. Erwin, ‘Beetles and other insects of tropical forest canopies at Manaus, Brazil, sampled by insecticidal fogging’, in S.G. Sutton, T.C. Whitman and A.C. Chadwick (eds) Tropical Rain Forest: ecology and management, (Oxford, 1983), pp. 59–75.Google Scholar
- 10.A.H. Gentry, ‘Endemism in tropical versus temperate plant communities’ in M.E. Soulé (ed.), Conservation Biology — The science of scarcity and diversity, (Sunderland, Massachusetts; Sinauer Associates, 1986) pp. 153– 81.Google Scholar
- 12.For birds, see J. Cracraft, ‘Historical biogeography and patterns of differentiation with the South American avifauna: areas of endemism’, in P.A. Buckley et al,. (eds); Neotropical ornithology, (Ornithological Monographs no. 36, American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, DC, 1985) pp. 49–84.Google Scholar
- G.A.B. da Fonseca, ‘The Vanishing Brazilian Atlantic Forest’, Biological Conservation, 34 (Elsevier Applied Science Publishers Ltd, Barking, 1985) pp. 17–34.Google Scholar
- S.A. Mori, ‘Eastern, extra-Amazonian Brazil’ in D.G. Campbell and H.D. Hammond (eds), Floristic Inventory of Tropical Countries, (New York: The New York Botanical Garden, 1989) pp. 427–54.Google Scholar
- 13.S.A. Mori, op. cit. See also, W. Dean ‘Deforestation in southeastern Brazil’ in R. Tucker and J.F. Richards (eds), Global deforestations and the nineteenth century world economy, (Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 1983) pp. 50–67.Google Scholar
- 14.T.L. Lovejoy, ‘A projection of species extinction’ in The Global 2000 Report, vol. 2 (London, 1982), pp. 328–31.Google Scholar
- P.R. and A.H. Ehrlich, Extinctions, (New York: Random House, 1982).Google Scholar
- 18.L.C. Brown, and E.C. Wolf, Soil erosion: Quiet crisis in the World Economy,. Worldwatch Paper No. 60 (Washington, DC, 1984).Google Scholar
- 19.V.A. Villa Nova, E. Salati and E. Matusi, ‘Estimativa da evapotranspiraçáo na Bacia Amazônica’, Acta Amaznica, 6 (1976) pp. 215–28.Google Scholar
- 20.D. Janzen, Guanacaste National Park: Ecological and cultural restoration, (San José, Costa Rica: UNEP, 1986).Google Scholar
- 21.R.J.A. Goodland and H.S. Irwin, Amazon jungle: Green hell to red deserft, (New York: Elsevier, 1975).Google Scholar
- S.H. Davis, Victims of a miracle: Development and the Indians of Brazil, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977).Google Scholar
© Editorial matter and selection © D.J.R. Angell, J.D. Comer, M.L.N. Wilkinson 1990; Foreword © Gro Harlem Brundtland 1990; Endangered Earth © Sir Shridath S. Ramphal 1990; Threatened Islands © Richard Grove 1990; The Changing Climate and Problems of Prediction © Stephen H. Schneider 1990; Acid Precipitation © Matthew Wilkinson and Sarah Woodin 1990; Deforestation © Ghillean T. Prance 1990; Agricultural Pollution © Jules N. Pretty 1990; Halocarbons and Stratospheric Ozone © J.C. Farman 1990; Changes in Perception © Martin Holdgate 1990; Religion and the Environment © David Gosling 1990; Industry and the Environment © Chris Hampson 1990; OECD Nations and Sustainable Development © Charles Caccia 1990; Common Future — Common Challenge © Christopher Patten 1990; Environmental Advance and the European Community © Stanley Clinton Davis 1990; The United Nations System and Sustainable Development © Javier Perez de Cuellar 1990; Diplomacy and Sustainable Development © Sir Crispin Tickell 1990; Interpreting the Signals © Sir Arthur Norman 1990; Sustainable Development © Jim MacNeill 1990.