International Development in Human Perspective

  • Johan Galtung
Part of the The Conflict Series book series


From the very beginning let it be stated unambiguously: a basic need approach (BNA) is not the approach to social science in general or development studies in particular, but only one approach. There are others. They may focus on structures (particularly of production—consumption patterns of any type of goods and services), on processes (e.g., of how the structures change over time), and on how structure and process are constrained and steered by culture and nature, to mention just some examples, In more classical approaches there is also heavy emphasis on actors, their strategic games in cooperation and conflict and their motivations and capabilities. Nor is it assumed that one can pick any one of these approaches at will; they are probably all (and more could be added) indispensable for a rich picture of the human condition. The only thing that is assumed in the following is that a BNA, although not sufficient, is at least necessary; that a basic needs approach — or its equivalent in other terminologies — is an indispensable ingredient of development studies.


International Development Material Deprivation Strategic Game Human Perspective International Economic Order 
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Notes and References

  1. 4.
    Johan Galtung, The True Worlds: A Transnational Perspective (New York: The Free Press, 1979) Chapter 2.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© John Burton 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Johan Galtung

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