Preconception care — the embryo of health promotion

  • Joyce Shorney
Chapter
Part of the Midwifery Practice book series (MIPRA)

Abstract

Preconception care or preparing for pregnancy is not a new phenomenon and should be considered as an essential part of health promotion. If human life is conceived in the best possible environment this can only assist in reducing perinatal, neonatal and maternal mortality and morbidity thus improving the potential good health of future generations.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bamfield T 1989 Preparing for pregnancy. In Bennett V R, Brown L K (eds)Myles textbook for midwives ( 11th ed ). Churchill Livingstone, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  2. Bamphylde H 1984 Countdown to a healthy baby. Collins, LondonGoogle Scholar
  3. Banatvala J E 1982 Rubella vaccination—remaining problems. British Medical Journal 284: 1285–86PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Barnes B, Bradley S G 1990 Planning for a healthy baby. Foresight, GodalmingGoogle Scholar
  5. Brimblecombe F, Bastow M, Jones J, Kennedy N, Wadsworth J 1984 Enquiries into perinatal and early childhood deaths in a health care district. Archives of Disease in Childhood 59: 682–87PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bryce Smith D 1980 Lead and brain functioning. In Birch G C, Parker K J (eds). Food and Health. Applied Sciences Publishing, LondonGoogle Scholar
  7. Bullard J A 1981 Exercise in Pregnancy. Canadian Family Physician 27: 977–82PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Burden A C 1985 Diabetic control during pregnancy. Practical Diabetes 2 (5): 16–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Burton R 1621 Anatomy of melancholy, Vol I(1. 2 ). William Tegg, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Butler N R, Bonham D G 1963 Perinatal mortality. Livingstone, Edinburgh: 86–100Google Scholar
  11. Chamberlain G 1982 The role of the prepregnancy clinic. Novum 21: 6Google Scholar
  12. Chamberlain G, Lumley J 1986 Prepregnancy care: a manual for practice. John Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  13. Crawford M d’A 1985 Papers on preconceptual genetic counselling. First Symposium on Preconception Care Charing Cross Hospital, 4th July 1985: 86Google Scholar
  14. Crosby W H 1977 Fetal malnutrition: an appraisal of correlated factors. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 128 (1): 22–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Davidson D C, Isherwood D M, Ireland J T, Page P G, 1981 Outcome of pregnancy in a phenylketonuric mother after low phenylalanine diet introduced from the ninth week of pregnancy. European Journal of Paediatrics 137: 45–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Department of Health 1989 Confidential enquiries into maternal deaths in England and Wales 1982–1984. HMSO, LondonGoogle Scholar
  17. Dickerson J W T 1980 Guidelines for future parents, environmental factors and foetal health. Foresight, GodalmingGoogle Scholar
  18. Donnai D 1986 Prepregnancy care (Chapter 2): 11. John Wiley, Chichester Drury M I 1985 Diabetes in pregnancy. Practical Diabetes 2 (5): 3Google Scholar
  19. Ebbs J H, Tisdall O O, Scott W A 1941 The influences of prenatal diet on the mother and child. Journal of Nutrition 22: 515–26Google Scholar
  20. Elkington J 1985 The poisoned womb. Viking, HarmondsworthGoogle Scholar
  21. Gal I, Sharman I, Pryse-Davies J 1972 Vitamin A in relation to human congenital malformations. Advances in teratology 5: 143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gillmer M D G 1985 Obstetric management of diabetes. Practical Diabetes 2 (6): 4–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Grant E 1985 The bitter Pill. Corgi, LondonGoogle Scholar
  24. Haddad F 1986 Update on preconception care. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 6 (Supplement 2): 5119–5121Google Scholar
  25. Hansen J W, Streissguth A P, Smith D W 1978 The effects of moderate alcohol consumption on fetal growth and morphogenesis. Journal of Paediatrics 92: 457–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Harris R 1988 Vitamins and neural tube defects. British Medical Journal 296: 80–1PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. House of Commons Social Services Committee (HC) 1980 Report on perinatal and neonatal mortality (Short Report). HMSO, LondonGoogle Scholar
  28. House of Commons Social Services Committee (HC) 1984 Follow-up report on perinatal and neonatal mortality. HMSO, LondonGoogle Scholar
  29. Larsson-Cohn U 1975 Oral contraceptives and vitamins: a review. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 121 (i): 84–90Google Scholar
  30. Laukaran V H, van den Berg B J 1980 The relationships of maternal attitude to pregnancy outcomes and obstetric complications. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 136: 374–79Google Scholar
  31. Laurence K M, James N, Miller M, Campbell H 1980 Increased risk of reoccurrence of pregnancies complicated by fetal neural tube defects and possible benefit of dietary counselling. British Medical Journal 281: 1592–94PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Maternity Alliance Getting fit for pregnancy. Maternity Alliance, LondonGoogle Scholar
  33. Mortimer P 1984 Getting fit for a baby (Family Doctor booklet). BMA, LondonGoogle Scholar
  34. Mothercare/Royal College of Midwives 1987 Before you conceive. Mothercare Ltd, WatfordGoogle Scholar
  35. National Childbirth Trust Healthy babies begin before you’re pregnant. NCT, LeedsGoogle Scholar
  36. New Era 1980 Hair analysis reveals the secrets of your health. New Era Laboratories, LondonGoogle Scholar
  37. Nucholls K B, Casel J, Kaplan B H 1972 Psychosocial assets, life crises and the prognosis of pregnancy. American Journal of Epidemiology 95: 431–44Google Scholar
  38. Oberleas D, Caldwell D, Prasad A 1972 Trace elements and behaviour.International review of neurobiology 85: SupplementGoogle Scholar
  39. Pfeiffer C C 1975 Mental and elemental nutrients. Keats, New Canaan CTGoogle Scholar
  40. Pfeiffer C C 1978 Zinc and other micronutrients. Keats, New Canaan CTGoogle Scholar
  41. Plant M L 1987 Women, drinking and pregnancy. Tavistock Publications,LondonGoogle Scholar
  42. Plato Laws. Reissued 1970 as a Penguin Classics edition. Penguin Books, HarmondsworthGoogle Scholar
  43. Pottenger F M Jnr 1983 Pottenger’s cats. Pottenger-Price Nutrition Foundation, La Mesa CAGoogle Scholar
  44. Price W A 1945 (Reissued 1977 ) Nutrition and physical degeneration. PricePottenger Nutrition Foundation. LA Mesa, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  45. Read A P, Fielding D W, Walker S, Schorah C J, Wild J (1983) Further experience of vitamin supplementation for prevention of neural tube defect recurrences. Lancet is 1027–31Google Scholar
  46. Read J M T 1982 Prenatal care—A lesson from Holland. Middle East Health 6 (12): 22–3Google Scholar
  47. Robarts J 1988 Preparing for pregnancy. Faber & Faber, LondonGoogle Scholar
  48. Roels H, Humermont G, Butcher J P, Lauverys R 1978 Placental Transfer of lead, mercury, cadmium and carbon monoxide in woman. Environmental Review 16: 236Google Scholar
  49. Scott T M, Morton Fyffe W, McKay Hart D 1980 Maternal phenylketonuria abnormal baby despite low phenylalanine diet during pregnancy. Archives of Diseases in Childhood 55: 634–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Shorney J M T (1983) Preconception care. Nursing Mirror Midwifery Forum 157(14) Supplement: i—iiGoogle Scholar
  51. Shorney J M T 1985 Exeter Midwives Advisory Centre. Midwives Chronicle 98 (1164): 14–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Simpson W J A 1957 A preliminary report on cigarette smoking and the incidence of prematurity. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 73: 808Google Scholar
  53. Smithells R W, Sheppard S, Schorah C J, Seller M J, Nevin N C, Harris R, Read A P, Fielding D W 1980 Possible prevention of neural tube defects by periconceptual vitamin supplementation. Lancet i: 339–40Google Scholar
  54. Stein Z A, Susser M, Saenger G, Marolla F 1975 Famine and human development: the Dutch Hunger Winter of 1944–1945. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  55. Sweet B R 1988 Mayes midwifery (11th ed): 571–72.Baillière Tindall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  56. Taylor J B 1979 Examine patients for fitness for pregnancy. Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners 29: 169Google Scholar
  57. Taylor J B 1981 Preconception clinics. British Medical Journal 283: 685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Tuck S M, Studd J W W, White J M, 1983 Pregnancy in sickle cell disease in the United Kingdom. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 90: 112–7CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Vessey M P, Wright N H, McPherson K, Wiggins P 1978 Fertility after stopping different methods of contraception. British Medical Journal 177: 265–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Ward N I 1987 Placental element levels in relation to fetal development for obstetrically normal births: a study of 37 elements, evidence for effects of cadmium, lead, and zinc on fetal growth, and smoking as a source of cadmium. International Journal of Biosocial Research 9 (1): 63–81Google Scholar
  61. Williams R J 1973 Nutrition against disease. Bantam, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  62. Witchells J 1984 Preconception care. Johnson & Johnson Baby Newsline No 33Google Scholar
  63. Wood S M, Bexley L 1981 Prescribing in pregnancy.Google Scholar
  64. W B Saunders, London Wynn M, Wynn A 1981 The importance of nutrition around the time of conception in the prevention of handicap. Applied Nutrition 1: 12–19Google Scholar
  65. Zipper J A, Model M, Prager R 1969 Suppression of fertility by intrauterine copper and zinc in rabbits. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 105: 529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Bamfield T 1989 Preparing for pregnancy. In Bennett V R, Brown L K (eds)Myles textbook for midwives (11th ed).Google Scholar
  67. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh Chamberlain G, Lumley J 1986 Prepregnancy care—a manual for practice. John Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  68. Daly H, Clarke P, Field J 1988 Diabetes care — a problem solving approach: 101–08. Heinemann, LondonGoogle Scholar
  69. Harper P S 1984 Practical genetic counselling (2nd ed). John Wright, BristolGoogle Scholar
  70. Robarts J 1988 Preparing for pregnancy. Faber & Faber, LondonGoogle Scholar
  71. Sweet R 1988 Mayes’ midwifery—a textbook for midwives (11th ed): 55–61;99–102; 115–25. Baillière Tindall, LondonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Joyce Shorney 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joyce Shorney

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations