The participation of women in gainful employment has been increasing worldwide since the Second World War, though its distribution among nations has been uneven and its pace has varied according to cycles of the world economy. In industrial societies, particularly the United States, the rise in women’s formal labour force participation has been recognised as one of the most profound social changes of the post-war decades. It has prompted extensive research into its causes and consequences, especially its impacts on women’s family roles. Among social scientists in all disciplines, research into work-family linkages has assumed increasing interest.


Labour Market Labour Force Participation Married Woman Gender Ideology Reproductive Labour 
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© Sharon Stichter and Jane L. Parpart 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sharon Stichter
  • Jane L. Parpart

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