Structural Disequilibria and Adjustment Policies in the Ivory Coast

  • Gilles Duruflé
Part of the International Political Economy Series book series (IPES)


The serve economic crisis which the Ivory Coast has experienced since 1980, and of which the first symptom was the deterioration in the balance of payments position after 1978, is frequently presented as the consequence of the deterioration of the international economic environment (the second petroleum price hike and the decline in world market prices for primary resources), and specifically the downward turn of coffee and cocoa world market prices, after the peak reached in 1976 through 1978, may be regarded as catalysts in setting off the crisis, but do not constitute the deep and fundamental causes.2 Rather, from a macroeconomic point of view, the origins of disequilibria are embedded in a certain number of long standing divergent tendencies, intensified throughout the 1970s, which constitute the counterpart of the model of growth and redistribution which had ensured the sustained growth of the Ivorian economy from 1960 to 1980. These phenomena can be identified at a number of levels and systematised in the following manner:


Industrial Sector Industrial Policy Structural Adjustment Ivory Coast Public Account 
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  1. 1.
    It is impossible to adequately demonstrate the validity of these contentions within the confines of this text. For a more complete analysis see G. Duruflé et al., Déséquilibres structurels et programmes d’ajustement en Côte-d’Ivoire (Paris: Ministry of Co-operation, 1986) pp. 1–45 and pp 119–146, andGoogle Scholar
  2. G. Duruflé, L’ajustement structurel en Afrique. (Sénégal, Côte-d’Ivoire, Madagascar) (Paris: Karthala, 1988) pp. 89–148).Google Scholar
  3. 4.
    To be very brief, these costs increase proportionally with the number of ‘cadres’ who could aspire to this level of ‘modern’ life and standard of living. During the 1970s, the rate of increase of these costs was greater than the rate of increase of national wealth produced. The above theme is extensively developed by L. Gouffern, ‘Les limites d’un modèle? A propos d’etat et bourgeoisie en Côte-d’Ivoire’, Politique Africaine (May 1982) no. 6, pp. 19–34.Google Scholar
  4. 8.
    G. Michel and M. Noël, ‘The Ivorian Economy and Alternative Trade Regimes’, in The Political Economy of the Ivory Coast (New York: Praeger, 1984) p. 100.Google Scholar
  5. 16.
    In most regions according to customary law, land use may be granted to someone else, but ownership may not be transferred. Moreover, usufruct rights can be challenged with each new cultivation cycle. Hence the importance of perennial crops is a crucial issue in the scramble for land. On the other hand, complete clearing of all trees in order to replant could be an issue which might engender a challenge to usufruct rights. See F. Ruf ‘Quelle intensification en économie de plantation ivoirienne?’ L’agronomie tropicale (1985) no. 40–1, pp. 44–53.Google Scholar

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© Bonnie K. Campbell and John Loxley 1989

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  • Gilles Duruflé

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