Towards a definition



An investigation of the counter-culture in Britain raises obvious questions of definition. What was the counter-culture? How has it been defined? What did the term mean to those who were a part of it? These questions pose a further one: what was the culture which the counter-culture sought to counter?


Social Movement Popular Culture Dominant Culture Underground Press Common Culture 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Raymond Williams, Keywords (London, 1983) p. 15.Google Scholar
  2. 3.
    A. L. Kroeber and Clyde Kluckholn, Culture: a Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions (New York, 1952).Google Scholar
  3. 4.
    Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, The Communist Manifesto (Harmondsworth, Middx, 1973) p. 102.Google Scholar
  4. 5.
    Raymond Williams, Culture and Society, 1780–1950 (Harmondsworth, Middx, 1976) p. 17.Google Scholar
  5. 8.
    Raymond Williams, The Long Revolution (Harmondsworth, Middx, 1973).Google Scholar
  6. 9.
    E. P. Thompson, ‘The Long Revolution’, New Left Review, no. 9 (May–June 1961) p. 32.Google Scholar
  7. 13.
    E. P. Thompson, ‘The Long Revolution-II’, New Left Review, no. 10 (July–August 1961) p. 36.Google Scholar
  8. 15.
    R. Johnson, ‘Three Problematics: Elements of a Theory of Working-Class Culture’, in J. Clarke, C. Critcher and R. Johnson (eds), Working-Class Culture: Studies in History and Theory (London, 1979) p. 234.Google Scholar
  9. 16.
    Hans Medick, ‘Plebeian Culture in the Transition to Capitalism’, in R., Samuel and G. Stedman Jones (eds), Culture, Ideology and Politics (London, 1982) p. 84.Google Scholar
  10. 18.
    Zev Barbu, ‘Popular Culture: a Sociological Approach’, in C. W. E. Bigsby (ed.), Approaches to Popular Culture (London, 1976) p. 56.Google Scholar
  11. 20.
    S. Hall, ‘In Defence of Theory’, in R. Samuel (ed.), People’s Histoy and Socialist Theory (London, 1981) pp. 378–85.Google Scholar
  12. 24.
    J. Milton Yinger, ‘Contraculture and Subculture’, American Sociological Review, vol. 25, no. 5 (October 1960) p. 629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 28.
    James L. Spates, ‘Counterculture and Dominant Culture Values: a Cross-National Analysis of the Underground Press and Dominant Culture Magazines’, American Sociological Review, vol. 41, no. 5 (October 1976) p. 869.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 29.
    Richard Flacks, Youth and Social Change (Chicago, Ill., 1971) p. 17.Google Scholar
  15. 31.
    Lauren Langman, ‘Dionysus-Child of Tomorrow: Notes on Postindustrial Youth’, Youth and Society vol. 3, no. 1 (1971–2) p. 81.Google Scholar
  16. 32.
    Stanley Cohen and Laurie Taylor, Escape Attempts: The Theory and Practice of Resistance to Everyday Life (Harmondsworth, Midd, 1976) p. 148.Google Scholar
  17. 33.
    Fred Davis, ‘Why All of Us May be Hippies Someday’, Transction, vol. 5, no. 2 (December 1967) p. 12.Google Scholar
  18. 34.
    Kevin D. Kelly, Youth, Humanism and Technology (New York, 1972) pp. 161, 165.Google Scholar
  19. 36.
    Theodore Roszak, The Making of a Counter-Culture: Reflections on the Technocratic Society and Its Youthful Opposition (London, 1970) p. 42.Google Scholar
  20. 39.
    B. Martin, A Sociology of Contemporary Social Change (Oxford, 1981) pp. 15–16.Google Scholar
  21. 40.
    D. A. Foss and R. W. Larkin, ‘From “The Gates of Eden” to “Day of the Locust”: an Analysis of the Dissident Youth Movement of the 1960s and its Heirs of the Early 1970s-the Post-movement Groups’, Theory and Society, vol. 3, no. 1 (Spring 1976) p. 45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 44.
    Kenneth Westhues, quoted in Frank Musgrove, Ecstasy and Holiness: Counter-Culture and the Open Society (London, 1974) p. 9.Google Scholar
  23. 45.
    H. Marcuse, An Essay on Liberation (Harmondsworth, Middx, 1973) ch. 2.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Elizabeth Nelson 1989

Authors and Affiliations

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations