Populism and Orthodox Marxism in the 1890s

  • M. C. Howard
  • J. E. King
Chapter
Part of the Radical Economics book series (RAE)

Abstract

Plekhanov developed his Marxism primarily in opposition to populist intellectuals. The underdeveloped nature of the Russian labour movement in the 1880s meant that his immediate aim became that of converting revolutionaries of the intelligentsia to his position, rather than seeking to influence the proletariat directly.1 Plekhanov’s attack on populism, however, was part of a broader Marxist critique. The first round had been fired by Engels in 1873,2 and debates with populism in Russia were to end only with Stalin’s collectivisation in the late 1920s. The high point of the controversy came between 1894 and 1899, when there was a significant increase in the number of critical publications. This was also the period which saw the intellectual breakthrough of Marxist social democracy. In particular, the economic theory on which populist philosophy rested was undermined by a battery of sophisticated counter-arguments. While populism survived — principally in the socialist revolutionary party — it did so only by transforming its stand in ways which made major concessions to the Marxian critics.3

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    G. Plekhanov, Selected Philosophical Works (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1974) vol. 1, pp. 49–352.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    F. Engels, ‘Russia and the Social Revolution’ in P. W. Blackstock and B. F. Hoselitz (eds) The Russian Menace to Europe (London: Allen & Unwin, 1958) pp. 203–15.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    O. H. Radkey, The Agrarian Foes of Bolshevism (New York: Columbia University Press, 1958).Google Scholar
  4. M. Perrie, The Agrarian Policy of the Russian Socialist Revolutionary Party (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976).Google Scholar
  5. 4.
    R. Kindersley, The First Russian Revisionists (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1962) p. 41.Google Scholar
  6. 5.
    R. Pipes, Struve: Liberal on the Left (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1970) p. 145.Google Scholar
  7. 6.
    A. P. Mendel, Dilemmas of Progress in Tsarist Russia (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. A. Walicki, The Controversy Over Capitalism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1969).Google Scholar
  9. R. Wortman, The Crisis of Russian Populism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1967).Google Scholar
  10. F. Venturi, Roots of Revolution (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1960).Google Scholar
  11. Nikolai-on, Ocherki Nashego Poreformennogo Obschchestvennogo Khozyaystva (St Petersburg: A. Benke, 1893).Google Scholar
  12. 8.
    A. Reis, ‘Das Kapital Comes to Russia,’ Slavic Review, 29, 1970, pp. 219–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 9.
    K. Marx and F. Engels, Selected Correspondence (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1965) pp. 462–5.Google Scholar
  14. 10.
    Walicki, and R. Luxemburg, The Accumulation of Capital (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1951) pp. 276–291.Google Scholar
  15. 13.
    T. H. Von Laue, ‘Legal Marxism and the “Fate of Capitalism in Russia”’, Review of Politics, 18, 1956, pp. 23–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 14.
    S. Bulgakov, O Rynkakh pri Kapitalisticheskom Proizvodstve (Moscow: M. I. Vodovozovoj, 1897).Google Scholar
  17. 15.
    K. Marx, Capital (London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1970) vol. II.Google Scholar
  18. 16.
    M. I. Tugan-Baranovsky, Promyshlennye Krizisy v Sovremennoi Anglii (St Petersburg: I. N. Skorokhodova, 1894).Google Scholar
  19. G. Fischer, ‘Periodic Industrial Crises’, Annals of the Ukrainian Academy of the Arts and Sciences in the United States, 1954, pp. 745–802.Google Scholar
  20. 17.
    L. M. Kowal, Economic Doctrines of M. I. Tugan-Baranovsky (Urbana: University of IIIinois Ph.D., 1965) pp. 309–20.Google Scholar
  21. 19.
    M. C. Howard and J. E. King, The Political of Marx (Harlow: Longman, 1985) 2nd edn, pp. 185–90.Google Scholar
  22. 26.
    L. M. Kowal, ‘The Market and Business Cycle Theories of M. I. Tugan-Baranovsky’, Rivista Internazionale di Scienze Economiche e Commerciale, 4, 1973, p. 314.Google Scholar
  23. R. L. Meek, Studies in the Labour Theory of Value (London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1973).Google Scholar
  24. 35.
    R. Service, Lenin: A Political Life (London: Macmillan, 1985) vol. 1, p. 69.Google Scholar
  25. S. Amato, ‘Tuhan[sic]-Baranovsky’s Theories of Markets, Accumulation and Industrialisation: Their Influence on the Development of Economic Thought and Modern Historiographic Research’ in I. S. Koropeckyj (ed.) Selected Contributions of Ukrainian Scholars to Economics (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1984) pp. 1–59.Google Scholar
  26. 55.
    K. Marx, Capital (London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1970) vol. 1, part VIII.Google Scholar
  27. 62.
    M. Kalecki, ‘The Problem of Effective Demand with Tugan-Baranovsky and Rosa Luxemburg’ in Selected Essays on the Dynamics of the Capitalist Economy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971).Google Scholar
  28. M. C. Howard, Profits in Economic Theory (London: Macmillan, 1983) pp. 164–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 63.
    Compare A. Gerschenkron, Economic Backwardness in Historical Perspective (Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1966) pp. 119–51.Google Scholar
  30. P. Gatrell, The Tsarist Economy (London: Batsford, 1986) pp. 98–140.Google Scholar
  31. 65.
    G. T. Robinson, Rural Russia Under the Old Regime (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967) pp. 222.Google Scholar
  32. A. Gerschenkron, ‘Agrarian Policies and Industrialisation, Russia 1861–1917’, in H. J. Habakkuk and M. Postan (eds) The Cambridge Economic History of Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1965) vol. 6, pp. 792.Google Scholar
  33. A. Hussain and K. Tribe, Marxism and the Agrarian Question, vol. I (New Jersey: Humanities Press, 1981) pp. 47, 88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. T. Shanin, The Awkward Class (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1972).Google Scholar
  35. 67.
    H. Friedmann, ‘World Market, State, and Family Farm: Social Bases of Household Production in the Era of Wage Labour’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 20, 1978, pp. 545–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. H. Friedman, ‘Simple Commodity Production and Wage Labour in the American Plains’, The Journal of Peasant Studies, 6, 1979, pp. 71–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. D. Atkinson, The End of the Russian Land Commune 1905–1930 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1983) parts III–V.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© M. C. Howard and J. E. King 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. C. Howard
    • 1
  • J. E. King
    • 2
  1. 1.University of WaterlooUK
  2. 2.La Trobe UniversityAustralia

Personalised recommendations