What Does Modernization Mean? The Arguments Applied

  • Oliver Ramsbotham


Chapters 2 and 3 have shown how ‘modernization’ means entirely different things to different people.


Nuclear Weapon Nuclear Force Nuclear Bomb Defence Minister Cruise Missile 
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  1. 23.
    Lynn Davies, ‘Lessons of the INF Treaty’, Foreign Affairs, 66(4) Spring 1988, p. 726.Google Scholar
  2. 24.
    Richard Nixon, Henry Kissinger and Al Haig criticized the Treaty along these lines. Bernard Rogers, who was Supreme Allied Commander Europe at the time, argued that it would lead to the denuclearization of Europe, The Council for Arms Control Bulletin, 33, July 1987, pp. 2–3.Google Scholar
  3. 25.
    For example, George Younger, ‘INF And Beyond’, RUSI Journal, Spring 1988, pp. 3–6; David Mellor, NATO Review, 6 February 1988, pp. 1–5.Google Scholar
  4. 33.
    For example, Leon Brittan has suggested that ‘The key concept must be the linking of a Europe free from short-range nuclear weapons with a tank-free Central Europe’, ‘Defence and Arms Control in a Changing Era’, London, Policy Studies Institute, June 1988, p. 13.Google Scholar
  5. 37.
    ‘With the W82 in NATO’s armoury, the Soviet land planner would be forced to consider any 155-millimeter howitzer tube in the Alliance as a potential nuclear delivery system’, Bernard Rogers, letter to members of the US Senate, December 1982, quoted in Dan Plesch, ‘Preparing for the First Use of Nuclear Weapons in Europe’, Peace Research Report, 16, Bradford University School of Peace Studies, March 1987.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Oxford Research Group 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Oliver Ramsbotham
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Peace StudiesUniversity of BradfordUK

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