• Hugh Arbuthnott
  • Geoffrey Edwards


In the perspective of 1945 the present European Community must be considered a remarkable achievement. It now includes twelve members, Spain and Portugal being the last to join, in January 1986. Another eight Western European countries are closely linked to it. Much of the history of the European Community appears as giant leaps into the political unknown, followed by some rapid back-pedalling as the enormity of the leaps became more fully realised. The 1980s, however, have seen a more avowedly modest approach adopted by the member states towards the construction of Europe, an approach reflected in the Single European Act signed in 1986.


Member State Foreign Policy Custom Union European Economic Community Free Trade Area 
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Suggestions for Further Reading

  1. J. Barber and B. Reed (eds), European Community: Vision and Reality (Croom Helm, 1973 )Google Scholar
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  22. J. Young, Britain, France and the Unity of Europe (Leicester University Press, 1984 )Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Hugh Arbuthnott and Geoffrey Edwards 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hugh Arbuthnott
  • Geoffrey Edwards

There are no affiliations available

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