Although the term ‘solution’ covers a wide variety of possible combinations of the three states of matter, we shall be concerned in this chapter mainly with homogeneous solutions of solid solutes in liquid solvents (usually aqueous). This type of solution is frequently encountered in pharmacy in such liquid dosage forms as parenteral solutions, eye-drops, infusions and irrigations. Some of the basic thermodynamic properties of solutions will be examined as well as those solution properties such as osmotic pressure, pH, diffusion and viscosity that are of particular interest in pharmacy.
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