Quantitative and Qualitative Factors in National Policies for Science and Technology
Since World War II policies for science and technology in the OECD countries have gone through several different phases. In the immediate post-war period attitudes were still very heavily influenced by the experiences of the war itself, in which there was an unprecedented mobilisation of scientific and technical resources for the development of new and improved weapon systems. During this first period the emphasis was very strongly on the “supply side” of the science-technology system and especially on building up a strong R&D capability. This period corresponded to the needs of recovery and reconstruction after World War II, as well as to the implications of the Cold War which meant that in many countries, but especially in the larger ones, defence R&D continued in a very large scale. The “economic” ministries generally took no responsibility for science and technology and had little to say about it.
KeywordsEurope Income OECD
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.V. Walsh, “Technology, Competitiveness and the special problem of small countries”, OECD - Finnish Government Seminar, Helsinki, January 1986.Google Scholar
- 3.Stevan Dedijer, “International Comparisons of Science”, New Scientist 21, 1964, pp. 461–464.Google Scholar
- 4.J. H. Irvine and B. R. Martin, “A methodology for assessing the scientific performances of research groups”, OECD Science and Technology Indicators Conference, Paris, September 1980.Google Scholar
- 5.J. Schmookler, Innovation and Economic Growth, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1966.Google Scholar
- 6.M. Jonason, “Patent statistics as related to the industrial development trend in Sweden in the period 1925–1936”, World Patent Information, 4, 1 1982.Google Scholar
- 7.B.L. Basberg, “Technological Change in the Norwegian Whaling Industry: a case study in the use of Patent Statistics as a Technology Indicator”, Research Policy, 11, 2, 1982.Google Scholar
- 8.G. Hufbauer, International Trends in Synthetic Materials, London: Duckworth, 1966.Google Scholar
- 9.L. Nabseth and G. F. Ray, The Diffusion of New Industrial Processes, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1974.Google Scholar
- 10.G. F. Ray, The Diffusion of Mature Technologies, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984, p. 86.Google Scholar